Mango Production

Mango

Botanical Name: Mangifera indica (L.)

Some suitable /exportable cultivars: Kent, Keitt, Palmer, Haden, Alphonso and Jaffina. Fruits mature between May and August. In the southern part of the country most varieties also fruit between December and February depending on the weather.

Source of Planting Material: MOFA recommended nurseries.

Suitable Areas of Production: Guinea Savannah (Northern, Upper East and Upper West Region), Transitional (Brong-Ahafo, and Upper parts of the Ashanti, Eastern and Volta Regions) and the Coastal Savannah areas of the Greater Accra, Central and Volta Regions. Avoid the forest areas.

Site selection: Select areas with well drained soils without a hard pan with pH 5.5-7 (slightly acidic to neutral), rainfall distribution of 500-1500 mm of 27 to 40°C. At least 2-3 months of dry weather is necessary for good flowering and fruit set.

Windbreak: At windy sites establish windbreaks against the direction of wind to prevent breakage. Plants selected as windbreaks will provide protection for distance of two and half times the windbreak’s height. A plant such as Madras thorn is suitable as windbreak.

Land Preparation: Slash; remove all slumps and stones, plough, harrow and ridge and construct drainage channels and ponds where necessary.

Planting: Seedlings should be delivered in the time for planting and planted at the onset of the rains. Line and peg such that rows are aligned in the East-West direction. First dig holes 60cm wide and deep. Mix top-soils with well decomposed organic manure to fill the hole. Leave for 2 weeks to settle. Remove poly bags from seedlings, plant and mulch with any suitable organic material. Where rainfall is erratic irrigate seedlings to field capacity at weekly intervals.

Spacing: Spacing ranges from 8m x 6m, 8m x 8m, 9m x 5m and 10m x 5m depending on the soil type, climatic condition, variety and crop management practices adopted.

Training and Pruning: Train seedlings to a single plant as soon as it is established by cutting off all side shoots. When the plant reaches about 1m high, cut the terminal shoot to induce side shoots. Select 3-5 shoots well spaced out at 50cm apart and different heights on the trunk to become the main branches. Avoid branches with weak unions. Prune the side shoots after they have produced 2-3 flushes (50-60cm) and cut below the back ring area. Continue pruning until the desired height (3.5-4.5m) is obtained. Keep the tree free of side shoots.

 

Irrigation Schedule: Irrigate as and when necessary.

Stage/Age of trees Water required/tree
New transplants 20-30L every 4-5 days
2yr old 100-150L every 10 days
3yr old 200-300L every 15 days
Bearing trees 400-500L every 14 days

*For good yield and quality fruits, discontinue 2-3 clear months before flower induction and 45-60 days after harvesting.

Fertilizer Application: Be guided by soil analysis results in mango nutrient management. The recommendation below can also serve as a guide.

 

Age of the tree

(yr)

NPK

(kg/tree)

KCL

K SO

(Kg/tree)

Manure

/Compost

(kg/tree)

1 0.3-0.4 3
2-5 1.0-3.1 10-30
>5 3.8-6.6 0.25(300) 37-66

OR

Age of the

tree (yr)

Amt of NPK

15-15-15/yr

Remark
1 300-450gm 3 split application
2 1-2kg 3 split application
3 1.4-3.4kg 2 split application
4 2.0-4.8kg 2 split application
5 3.0-6.0kg 2 split application
6 3.5-7.2kg 2 split application
7 and > 4.0-8.4kg 2 split application

Pests and Diseases

Mealy bugs, bugs, fruit flies, mango stone weevil, thrips, mites and paddle-legged bugs.

Control:

By practicing strict farm hygiene. For fruit flies and mealy bugs use bio-agents and/or pheromone traps. Manage mango seed weevil by spraying recommended insecticides when fruit reach pigeon egg size (10mm). A 2nd or 3rd spray at 10-12 days interval may necessary depending on the level of infestation.

Anthracnose: It attacks leaves, flowers and fruits. Symptoms include spots on leaves, which fall out leaving holes on matured leaves; blighting of inflorescence and tear spots on fruits. Affected ripe fruits develop black spots of varying sizes and rot.

Control with EPA approved copper based fungicides at recommended rates from flower bud formation to fruit development. After harvesting, dip ripe fruits in hot water at 55°C for 5 minutes before packing.

Mango Scab: Caused by the fungus Elsinoe mangiferae. Symptoms include greyish brown spots on the fruit with cracks at center, which become corky. Control as indicated above.

Powdery mildew: Caused by Oidium sp. The infected flower, flower stalk and young fruits become covered with the whitish powdery growth of the fungus. Severe infection may cause leaf distortion and premature leaf drop. Control with EPA approved systemic fungicides from pre-flowering to fruit set when necessary.

Yield: With good management the following yields can be obtained.

Harvesting: Fruits take about 100-110 days to mature. Harvest during the cool hours of the day and turn them down on foam mats or put in water to avoid latex from sticking on the fruit skin. Keep fruits under shade after harvesting.

Operational Budget/Ha GHc (does not include investment costs).

Activity              YEARS
1 2 3 4
Slashing 100
De-stumping 750
Ploughing (2x) 200
Harrowing 90
Lining &Pegging 90
Holing, manuring and planting 250
Scouting and spraying 50 100 100 100
Pruning 90 120 120 120

 

Weeding 100 100 100 100
Harvesting       40
Fertilizers & Manure 150 150 200 250
Seedling (200/ha) 600      
Agrochemicals 50

 

50

 

80

 

100

 

Total 2520 520 600 710
Yield (kg)       4000
REVENUE        
        2,220*
Annual Returns -2520 -3040 -3640 -2130

 

*20% for export @ GHc 1.20/kg

40% for local market (processing) @ Ghc 0.60/kg

40% for local market (fresh) @ GHc 0.50/kg

 

5 6 7 8
Scouting & spraying 50 100 100 100
Pruning 90 120 120 120
Weeding 100 100 100 100
Harvesting 40 40 40 40
Fertilizers &

Manure

150 150 200 200
Agrochemicals 50 50 80 100
Total 480 560 640 710
Yield (kg) 8000 12000 16000 20000
REVENUE
4440 8160 10880 13600
Annual Returns 1830 9430 19670 32560

 

© 2013

Developed by:

Horticulture Development Unit

(HDU-DCS), MOFA

Printed by:

Export Marketing & Quality Awareness Project

(EMQAP)

For further information contact the nearest MOFA Office or HDU

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