Botanical name: Zingiber officinale
Local: White type and Yellow type
Export: Yellow Jamaican, Sierra Leonean selection.
Source of planting material:
Exotic varieties – Input dealers; horticulture Department, KNUST, Kumasi.
Local varieties – Established farms in the growing areas.
Soil and Climatic requirements: The crop requires constantly hot (25-350c) and moist climate with a well-distributed annual rainfall of at least 1300-1500mm occurring mainly in the 9 months of the crop’s growth. The forest areas of the Ashanti, Central, Volta, Eastern and the Brong Ahafo Regions are suited for ginger production.
Site Selection: Ginger does well in slightly acidic to neutral, well drained soils rich in nutrients and organic matter. Soils with pH lower than 5 should be limed. Select land with a gentle slope. Avoid waterlogged or imperfectly drained soils as they retard shoot growth.
Land preparation: To produce well shaped rhizomes, thoroughly clear bush, remove root stumps, plough deeply and harrow. Raise beds 1.2-1.8m wide or ridges 60-90cm apart for planting. Ginger can also be grown on the flat.
Seed rate: 1500-2000 kg/ha setts(2.5-5 cm long cured rhizomes).
Propagation: Use setts with at least two or more viable buds. Dip in EPA approved fungicide solution, air-dry and store for a day or two before planting. The setts may be sown directly or nursed and transplanted 4-8 cm deep when the rains start.
Spacing: 25-45 cm between rows and 15-20 cm within rows (about 268,750 plants/ha)
Mulching: Mulch with non-seeded dry grass, rice husks, dried cocoa husks or plastic mulch to conserve moisture and control weeds. First mulch should be spread at planting.
Earthening up: To avoid exposure of rhizomes to the sun, earthen up as and when necessary.
Weed control: Weeds can be effectively controlled by hand picking during the growing season or practice shallow weeding to avoid damaging plants.
Irrigation: Where rainfall is not evenly distributed and depending on the soil type, irrigate lightly but evenly every 4-7 days.
Fertilizer application: Use soil analysis report as a guide for fertilizer application. A general recommendation is to apply 25-30 tons/ha of well-decomposed organic manure during land preparation or apply a total of 600 kg/ha(12 bags) of NPK 15-15-15 in 2 split applications, 5 bags at 3 weeks after sprouting and 7 bags at 3 months after planting.
Major Pests: Although there are no serios pests due to the pungent nature of the crop, cut worms, aphids, root knot nematodes, stem borer, African black beetles and rodents sometimes attack the shoots or roots. Practice IPM or apply EPA approved chemicals.
Major diseases: Diseases like bacterial wilt, leaf spot, fusarium and pythium rot, soft rot and cork rot can attack the plants, however, they can be effectively controlled by practicing strict hygiene, use of bio-agents like (Trichoderma), improving drainage and 50ensuring proper sett dressing with EPA approved fungicides before planting.
Crop rotation: Rotate ginger with leguminous crops or unrelated crops. A 5-year rotation plan is recommended.
Harvesting: Ginger is ready for harvesting 5-10 months after planting when the tops have started dying and are dislodging. The rhizomes are harvested by hoeing the field or beds or by toppling the ridges. Care should be taken not to bruise or injure the rhizomes during harvesting. Ginger for the fresh export market should be harvested earlier (about 7 months) to reduce the fibre content of the rhizome.
Yield: The yield before drying is about 15-20 tons/ha.
Post-harvest handling: After digging, shake off soil, remove all roots and wash rhizomes thoroughly. Dry for 2 days in shade.
Dried ginger: Quality ginger must be uniformly dried. It may be scraped or non-scraped depending on the market requirement. Dried ginger’s value depends on its whiteness achieved by thorough washing and uniform drying. Liming (2% solution for 6 hrs followed by sun drying for 10 days) improves colour , appearance and also protects the rhizomes from mildew and other pests. Dry to 8-10% moisture content, store at 10-120 c and 90% relative humidity.
Grade: According to size and colour. Best grade consists of large hands and fingers and free from dirt and traces of mildew.
Preserved or green ginger: This is prepared by boiling the tender, freshly peeled rhizomes in water after which they are sold in sugar syrup.
Market specification: Ginger should be clean and uniform in colour. For fresh ginger, the fibre content should be 3.5% or below (export); or with higher pungency (local).
Packaging: Dried ginger can be packed in 25 and 50 kg meshed bags. Fresh ginger for export can be packaged in (288x203x108)mm or (457x297x153)mm box.
|Fertilizer and manure||2456.00|
|Total estimated cost||5606.00|
Average yield/ha = 15 tons =15000 kg
Percentage loss of 5%
Available yield = 95/100×15000 = 14250
Packaging in 50 kg bag = 14250/50 kg =285 bags
Farm gate price/50 kg bag = Ghc30
Income = 285 bagsxGhc30 = Ghc8550.00
Net income = 8550-5606 = GHC 2,944.00
Note: This budget does not include fixed cost and overheads.
Horticulture Development Unit (HDU-DCS), MOFA
Export Marketing & Quality Awareness project (EMQAP)
For further information contact the nearest MOFA office or HDU.