Botanical Name: Vigna unguiculata var sesquipedalis.
Suitable Varieties: White seeded, Orient wonder, Red noddle, Dark green, Mosaic.
Source of planting material: Buy certified seed from reputable seed dealers.
Site selection: Yard long beans can grow on a wide range of soils but prefer a well-drained medium loam with a pH of 6.0-7.5 (slightly acidic to neutral). They require a cool to moderately warm climate for good growth. Temperatures of 18-35oC are required for promoting flowering and fruit set. High humidity, excessive rain and hot weather cause flowers and pods to drop and increase the incidence of diseases. Commercial production is concentrated in the Southern parts of Ghana.
Land preparation: The land should be cleared from trees, grasses and root stumps. Double plough, harrow and incorporate 20 tons of compost or well decomposed organic manure.
Planting: Yard long bean seeds are sown directly on the field. Before sowing, perform germination test to determine how many to sow. Based on results, plant 2-3 seeds/hole, 2.5cm deep at a spacing of 20x75cm. It takes 3-5 days for seeds to emerge.
Seed rate: 10-30kg seeds/ha.
Nutrient management: Test soil to determine fertility level and adjust rates to meet the crop’s nutrient requirements.
Fertilizer requirement: Use soil analysis report as a guide for fertilizer application. A general recommendation for high yield is a basal application of NPK 150-400kg/ha depending on plant population, soil and local conditions. In the drier areas a pre-plant application of 40-50kg/ha P, in the form of Superphosphate is adequate.
Irrigation: Where soil water retention is adequate, irrigate copiously before planting and again only after seedlings have emerged. Otherwise irrigate more frequently as required. Uniform supply of water during flowering and pod development is essential. Irrigate routinely if rainfall is erratic.
Weed control: Hoeing in the field should be periodic to prevent weeds from growing and reducing yield. Pre-emergence herbicides can also be applied.
Training: Stakes/trellises should be provided for the climbing types. Treat stakes/trellises to prevent destruction by termites.
Pest and Disease Control: The crop is sensitive to soil-borne diseases and nematodes and should be grown in rotation with other crops. Solarize soil for 6-8weeks before planting is also recommended.
Major diseases include Anthracnose, Bacteria Blight, Powdery Mildew, Root Rot and Bean Mosaic Virus. Diseases can be controlled by application of IPM principles and where necessary the use of EPA approved chemicals.
Major Pests: A wide range of pests attack the beans in the field feeding on the leaves, stems, flowers and pods. These include Bean Fly, Pod Borer, Sting Bug, Thrips, Black Bean Aphid, White Fly and Red Spider Mite.
Control pests by using IPM principles and spray with EPA approved insecticides when necessary.
Harvesting: Fresh pods may be harvested at 70-90 days. For fine and extra fine beans, harvest every day. Pods should be rapidly cooled to remove field heat and packed into well-ventilated boxes immediately after harvest.
Yields: Yield varies with variety and field management. Average of 7-10 tons/ha is achievable.
Packaging: Pods must be packed into well-ventilated boxes to a net of 5.5kg.
|Fertilizer and manure||2314.00|
|Total estimated cost||5664.00|
Average fruit yield/ha = 8 tons =8,000 kg
Percentage loss of 5%
Available yield for market
= 95/100×8,000kg = 7,600kg
Packaging in 6 kg box = 7,600/6 kg =1267 boxes
Farm gate price/6 kg = Ghc15
Income = 1267×15= Ghc19,005.00
Net income = Ghc 19,005-5,664
Note: This budget does not include fixed cost and overheads.
Horticulture Development Unit (HDU-DCS), MOFA
Export Marketing & Quality Awareness project (EMQAP)
For further information contact the nearest MOFA office or HDU.