ASIKUMA-ODOBEN-BRAKWA DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL SITUATION
The Asikuma-Odoben-Brakua District is located on the North-central portion of the Central Region. It is borded on the north by South Birim District of the Eastern Region, on the south by Ajumako-Enyan-Essiam District, on the West by the Assin South District and Assin North Municipal, on the East by the Agona West Municipal.
The District covers a land area of about 884.84 sq km. Proportion of land area to region is 0.09:1 (9% of the total land area of the Central Region).
AGRICULTURAL LAND BASE
Total Land Area 884.84 kmsq
Agricultural Land Area 575.15 kmsq
Area under Cultivation 353.94 km sq.
Size of Farm Holding:
- An estimated 60% of the farming population have farmland less than 1.2 ha
- About 22% of the farming population have farmland between 1.2 ha – 2 ha
- Farming population of 18% have farmland size more than 2 ha
Land is owned by family heads and individuals. Land leased for specified period agreed on by land owners.
The main land tenure systems are;
- Shared cropping (Abusa)-refers to the sharing of farm produce by the landlord and the tenant on equal basis. The land always remains the property of the landlord. Is the most common land tenure system.
- Abunu-the tenant cultivates a tract of land usually planting cash crops such as oil palm, cocoa, citrus, coffee. The farm is divided into three equal parts. A third is given to the tenant.
- Leasehold is becoming predominant these days involving hiring the land to the lessee for a period of time at an agreed fee. Most tenants prefer the outright purchase of the land from the landlord.
Breman Asikuma, the administrative capital is also the traditional capital of the Bremans, and is one of the three Traditional Councils of the District. The others are Odoben and Brakua Traditional Councils.
RELIEF AND DRAINAGE
The district is an undulating low lying area ranging between 15 metres to 100 metres above sea level, with outstanding highlands. There are swampy areas at certain portions of the low lands.
The District is drained by numerous rivers of which the most important ones are Osia River and Ochi River, with tributaries including Boyow River, River Atresu, Bemu River, Ninsin River, Suponso River and Supuma River.
The relief and drainage may support development in rapid human settlement, all year round irrigation farming and general agriculture development.
The District lies in the moist semi-equatorial zone.
The average annual temperature ranges from 26°C to 34°C with the hottest temperatures in March.
Mean annual rainfall ranges from 120cm in the South-east to 200cm in the North-west. The District also experiences double maxima rainfall with peaks in May-June and September-October.
Relative humidity is high during the rainy season around 80% but falls to between 50% and 60% during the dry hot season.
GEOLOGY AND SOIL
The District is basically underlined by the Cape Coast granite rocks, which form the basis of high potential of Muscovite and quarry stones particularly at Odoben and Kooso. Soils are moderately deep, red and brown, well drained. The soil is mainly Batholiths and generally loamy. The soil association/series are indicated in the table below:
Soil Ecological Zones and their Use
|NO||SOIL SERIES||LOCATION||THE CROPS SOIL SUPPORTS||% OF DISTRICT LAND SURFACE COVERED|
|1||Asuansi-Kumasi/Nta-Offin||Amoanda, Nwomaso||Cocoa, oil palm, citrus, plantain, cassava||25%|
|2||Nsaba-Swedru||Domeabra, Nankese, Ayiakwaa, Asentem, Towoaboase, Kokoso, Jamra||Cocoa, oil palm, citrus, plantain, cassava, maize, vegetable||45%|
|3||Opimo-Nyanyano||Bedum, Krobo, Nyamebekyere, Esiawkwaa||Cocoa, oil palm, maize, plantain, cassava, vegetable||15%|
|4||Chichiwere-Kakum||Kwaman, Odumase, Kofi Ninsin, South Sinkyrenmu||Cocoa, cassava, maize, vegetable||15%|
The vegetation is mostly tropical rainforest and semi-deciduous forest. The District has four forest reserves namely the Baako, Supong, Wawahi and the Oboyow Forest Reserves. Each of the first three forest reserves has a land area of 25.6sqkm. Within these reserves, the forest is luxuriant and exhibits the three layers.
- Total population: 89,395 (representing about 5.6% share of the Regional Population and 0.47% of the National Population figure-2000 Population Census)
- Male population: 43,238
- Female population: 46,157
- Agriculture and agriculture related population: About 63,470 (71% of District total population)
- Farming population: About 48,091
- Population growth rate: Urban area-4.0%, and Rural area-2.3%
- Rural population: 60,917
- Urban population: 28,478
- Number of settlements: 245
- Population density: 101 per sqkm
- Breman Asikuma
Population of Major Towns in the District (2000Population Census):
- Breman Asikuma- 12,391
- Breman Odoben- 8,275
- Breman Brakwa- 7,812
- Breman Kuntunase-4,633
- Breman Bedum- 3,956
The Age Composition of the District Population (2000 Population Census)
- Infant dependent population i.e. between the age of 0.19 years: 52.2% of District population.
- Working resource providers’ population i.e. between the age of 20 and 64: 42.5% of District population.
- The aged and dependent population i.e. above the age 65 years: 5.3% of District population.
LABOUR FORCE AND DISTRIBUTION (2000 POPULATION CENSUS)
The potential labour force of the District derives from its adult population between the ages of 20 years to 64 years. The labour force was 42.5% of the District population. Using the District male: female ratios, 48.37% constitute the male labour force while 51.63% for the female.
The trend of migration in the District is basically rural-urban. This is primarily due to the rural nature of the District and the fact that attractive job opportunities are located mainly in the larger communities and the urban centres. On the other hand, there is out migration where people from the district travel outside to places like Mankessim in the Mfantseman Municipal, Agona Swedru in the Agona West Municipal, Akim Oda in the Eastern Region, Takoradi in the Western Region, Kumasi in the Ashanti Region and Accra in Greater Accra Region. The District also experiences some in-migration from outside the district. The District attracts large migrant farmers particularly the Gomoa’s, Ewes and Akans to the cocoa industry. It is estimated that 60% to 70% of the cocoa farmers in the District are migrant cocoa farmers. On the whole, it must be said that the out-migration is far higher than the in-migration.
The average household size is 3-4. This varies in the individual communities. The more rural the community is the larger the household size. There are more females in each household than males.
MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT UNIT
District Director of Agriculture
Extension Crops WIAD Animal Prodn Vet MIS
AEAs General Extension Vet AEAs Market
LOCATION OF MOFA OFFICE IN THE DISTRICT
STRATEGIES FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR POLICY OBJECTIVES IN THE DISTRICT
- Improvement in the uptake of agricultural technologies by improving relevance of technologies to users and their access to the technologies.
- Support production of high yielding, disease and pest resistant certified crop planting materials and breeds of animals and increased farmer usage through intensification of awareness campaign.
- Intensify dissemination of updated crop and animal production technological packages.
- Develop appropriate irrigation schemes to ensure agricultural production throughout the year.
- Support diversification by farmers into tree crops, vegetables, small ruminants, poultry and non-traditional commodities, based on their comparative and needs.
- Promote fish farming in the farming communities.
- Promote formation of viable farmer groups and farmer-based organizations to enhance their knowledge, skills and access to resources along the value chain.
- Advocate improved rural infrastructure (transport and communication), and appropriate regulatory environment to enhance sector investment.
- Develop standards and promote good agricultural practices along the value chain (including hygiene, proper use of pesticides, grading, packaging and standardization) to enhance quality and incomes.
- Promote linkage of smallholder production (including indigenous and industrial crops, livestock, and fisheries) to industry.
- Encourage partnership between private sector and District Assembly to develop trade in local markets with improved market infrastructure.
- Develop planned activities for the agricultural sector by allowing clients participation.
- Monitor and evaluate implementation of planned activities.
PERFORMANCE BY DADU
The District Agricultural Development Unit is the main provider of Agricultural Extension services. The District is divided into small operational areas manned by an Agricultural Extension Agents.
METHODS FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION DISSEMINATION
|NO||METHOD||TARGET||CAPACITY UTILIZED (%)|
|Farm/ Home visits||Individual farmers||31|
|Phone calls||Individual farmers||3|
|Farmer field fora||FBOs||2|
|Community fora||Farming communities||8|
|Community public address system||Farming communities||4|
|Radio discussion with phone in||Coverage areas||10|
SELECTED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION DISSEMINATION METHODS AND COVERAGE IN 2010 (in crops, livestock and fisheries subsectors and emerging issues)
COLLABORATION WITH DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS
|NO||NAME OF DEVELOPMENT PARTNER||AREA OF COLLABORATION|
|Ghana Health Service||HIV/AIDs,TB and malaria control and nutrition improvement|
|School Feeding Programme||Supply of local food stuffs|
|Moringa Community School of Trades||Capacity building for youth in food preservation and small business development|
ANIMAL HEALTH EXTENSION AND LIVESTOCK DISEASE SURVEILLANCE IN 2010
- PPR:Sheep- 392, goats-560
- Newcastle-48,000 birds
- Fowl pox-12,000 birds
- Rabies: dogs-224, cats-48
- sheep – 180
- Goats -360
- pigs- 24
VETERINARY CLINICS AND TREATMENT OF ANIMALS BY RADU AND DADUS
1 set of veterinary drugs purchased and 360 animals were treated against endo and ecto parasites, wounds, dystokia, pathological lesions and other diseases
FERTILIZER SUBSIDY PROGRAMME
Waybill/Receipt System is being used and started on 22nd June 2010
Main sources of supply of fertilizers are Yara and Chemico Ghana Ltd
Retailers are Cocoa Inputs Company Ltd dealing in Yara fertilizers and LMC Network Ltd dealing in Chemico Ghana Ltd fertilizers.
TOTAL NUMBER OF FERTILIZERS RECEIVED AND RETAILED IN 2010
|TYPE OF FERTILIZER||COCOA INPUTS COMPANY LTD||LMC NETWORK TLD (WOFA DAN)||TOTAL|
|Sulphate of Ammonia||0||190||190|
The District relies on dug outs and water pumping machines for dry season irrigation, especially in vegetable farms.
There is promotion of small scale irrigation schemes using the 6.5 hp and 17 hp pumps, since the District is endowed with three main water bodies. Interested farmers should contact the District MOFA Office in Breman Asikuma for further information.
Farmer registration exercise is in progress. A total of 1,108 farmers have been registered with the Asikuma-Odoben-Brakua District Agricultural Development Unit.
416 females and 692 males
BLOCK FARM MAIZE GRAIN PRODUCTION 2011
Block Farm Project, an intervention in food security by the government is being implemented in the Asikuma-Odoben-Brakwa District.
In all 60 acres of farm land is planted to seed maize.
Inputs supplied to farmers included: Seed maize, agro – chemicals (fertilizers and weedicides).
Thirty (30) male farmers are participating in the programme.
To improve the incomes of farmers as an alternative livelihood, the government has introduced the Cockerel Project which is aimed at supplying improved cockerels to rural households.
In the First Quarter of 2011, 13 low income farm households were supplied with 250 cockerel chicks.
ROOT AND TUBER IMPROVEMENT AND MARKETING PROGRAMME (RTIMP)
Development of the cassava industry through planting material multiplication and processing of produce into Gari, cassava dough, Tapioca, starch and flour.
In 2010, the District benefited from Improved Cassava Tertiary Multiplication programme. A total of 80 farmers including 20 females and 60 males from 12 farming communities established improved cassava multiplication farms.
MARKETING OF PRODUCE
Marketing of farm produce is normally done through middlemen who come from Mankessim, Kasoa and Accra to buy for the external markets. The rest are sold in the local markets by retailers. Major market centres in the district include Asikuma, Odoben, Brakwa, Kuntanase, Anhwiam, Jamra, Amoanda and Nwomaso.
STORAGE OF FARM PRODUCE
Grain products are being stored in few narrow cribs. Local bans are also used for storing grain products in the district.
PROCESSING OF FARM PRODUCE
Gari, palm oil, palm kernel oil and many other processed products are done basically using labour intensive technologies. However, there are cassava and oil processing equipment in certain communities. These have improved upon the output and the turnover of such beneficiaries immensely.
FARM ANIMAL PRODUCTION
|NO||FARM ANIMAL||ESTIMATED POPULATION|
THE MAIN ACTIVITIES ARE TO:
- Render efficient and effective extension services to fish farmers.
FRESH WATER FISHERIES (AQUACULTURE)
Aquaculture development for the production of Tilapia and Catfishes has a great potential and is gradually catching up in the district. Currently, there are 24 fish ponds stocked with Tilapia and Catfishes situated in Odoben, Bedum, Brakwa and Asikuma.
Establishment of fish hatchery is paramount for the production of Tilapia and Catfish fingerlings to feed the expanded aquaculture industry.
Non-traditional farming is becoming popular in the district as a result of education from MOFA and NBSSI-an alternative livelihood programmes. The major enterprises engaged in include grasscutter, rabbit and snail rearing and beekeeping.
- Good raw material base: (citrus, cocoa, cassava, oil palm, coffee, sugar cane, citronella)
- Availability of arable lands over 250sq km under developed.
- Water bodies (streams, rivers) to promote perennial flow of water for irrigation and fish farming.
- Bi-modal rainfall pattern
- Labour force /manpower
- Availability of data on agriculture
- High tourism potential (Ancient stones- Sunsunhyen on Aboaku Road, forest resources which are sources for wild life development)
- Potential for commercial production of animals
- Due to the central position of the District in the region, it has the potential for rapid development through:
– Attracting skilled and unskilled labour from adjoining Districts
– Sharing facilities with adjoining Districts
– Getting developed into a nodal market centre to link the Eastern Region