Awutu/Senya

LOCATION
The Awutu Senya District is situated between latitudes 5o20’N and 5o42’N and longitudes 0o25’W and 0o37’W at the eastern part of the Central Region of Ghana. It shares borders with the Ga South District (in the Greater Accra Region) to the east; Effutu Municipal and the Gulf of Guinea to the south; the West Akim District to the north; Birim South to the north-west, Agona West Municipal to the west, and the Gomoa East separating the southern portions of the district from the main land.
Awutu Senya DADU was created in 2008. It was managed by the Effutu Municipal Directorate of MOFA until January, 2010. Currently it has staff strength of 27. The Agricultural goal of the District is to increase production in a sustainable manner.
DEMOGRAPHICS
The following are key demographic indicators of the Awutu Senya District. Awutu Bereku is the Administrative capital which is situated on the Accra – Cape Coast Trunk Road.
Demographic Information of the Awutu Senya District
S/No. Description Indicator
1. Size of Awutu Senya district (sq km) 511.75
2. Population by gender 274,584 (projected from 2000 population and housing Census)

Male= 131640; Female = 142944
Male: female ratio = 1:1.06
3. Average Annual Population Growth rate

2.83
4. Population density

537 per km2

5. Principal Natural Resources: The District has a very good potential for irrigation farming. The District can boast of the Ayensu, Kwekude River and dam, Okurudu stream. However, there is the need for the district to undertake measures to utilize this potential.
6. Ethnic groups Awutu and Senyas of the Guan stock constitute the largest proportion of the ethnic groups.

There are other settlers of various ethnic backgrounds; these include the Gas, Akans, Ewes, Walas/Dagartis, Moshies, Basares and other numerous smaller tribes.
7. Festivals, taboos etc: The Awutu’s celebrate the ‘Awubia’ festival annually, which is a unifier and deepen the unity of the traditional area. The Senyas also celebrate the ‘Akumase’ festival each year.

The Awutus however do not cultivate groundnuts (an important cash crop in Ghana) which cultivation is a taboo in Awutu. This is because groundnuts ever served as bullets for the Beraku’s when they run short of bullets in a war. Secondly, keeping of dogs as pets or for any other reason is not allowed in Awutu. This is because their chief idol (Aprah Kojo) has dog as its guiding symbol going before it.
The Senyas perform widowhood rites on spouses who have lost their partners and the widow must not engage in any business activity
9. Major stakeholders in agriculture MOFA, DA, Farmers, food stuff processors, NGOs and traders, Research , Dept of Cooperative and other Government agencies.
10. Average household size 5
The table below makes comparisms of some characteristics of the 1984 and 2000 population figures.
YEAR POPULATION % URBAN (5000) mark DENSITY SEX RATIO

(Male: female)
No. OF C’TIES
1970

1984
2000
2009 (Est)
31,005

52,620
124,028
274,584
57.5%

76.8%

242per km2
537per km2
1:1.06 73

120
233
233
(SOURCE: PHC Special Report and ASDA Study.
Topography and Drainage
The topography of the district is characterised by isolated undulating highlands located around the Awutu area. The lowlands are found along the coastline of Senya area with isolated hills. The nature of the topography is directly related to the soil type. The highland and lowland area have loamy soils and clay soils respectively.
The drainage in the high areas are not as many as the lowland areas. The two major rivers namely Ayensu and Okrudu drain into the sea and occasionally cause flooding during the rainy season.
There are also streams that traverse the lowland plains stretching from Winneba to the Senya Coastal plains. The rivers that cut across the coastal plains have the potentials to be exploited for extensive vegetable cultivation during the dry season. This potential if exploited would provide employment opportunities for the people in the area.
Climate
The district experiences a five-month dry season starting from November to March during which period the dry North-East Trade winds blow accross the area. The dry season is followed by a seven-month rainy season which starts from April to October during which the moist south-west monsoon blow across the area. The rainfall figures of the district are quite low (40cm-50cm) along the coast but are higher towards the inland with the mean annual rainfall ranging between 50cm and 70cm.
The mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures of 220C and 280C coupled with the rainfall pattern favour the cultivation of many crops such as Pineapples, cassava, plantain, maize, yam, pawpaw, cocoa and oil palm, particularly, in the semi-deciduous forest areas. The coastal savannah is suitable for the cultivation of vegetables such as tomatoes, Okra, pepper, cabbage, garden eggs, onions, etc.
The high temperatures and dry conditions along the coast also favour salt mining from the ocean.
Vegetation
The vegetation of the district is made up of semi-deciduous forest and coastal savannah grassland. About 70% of the district is of semi-deciduous forest with cocoa and oil palm constituting the major crops cultivated. Forest are found in areas around Nyarkokwaa, Bontrase, Bawjiase and Osae-Krodua. The savannah grassland is found along the Southern Coastal areas of Senya and its environs.
The types of vegetation, to a large extent, influence the kinds of economic activities of the people. For example, the types of crops grown are closely related to the vegetation type found in the area; vegetables in the grassland area and cereals, roots, tubers and tree crops in the forest areas.. This may explain the reason why the Presidential Special Initiative on Cassava for the production of industrial starched is located in the Bawjiase area; where cassava strives very well in the semi-deciduous forest zone.
Soil Characteristics
The district is underlain by Birrimian rocks, which consist of granites and phyllites. The area is basically low-lying with protruding granitic rocks in some areas.
In the semi-deciduous forest zones, the soil type is mostly loamy soils which supports many plants and therefore suitable for arable farming. These crops include Pineapple, cassava, plantain, yam, maize, cocoa, cola-nuts, citrus and pawpaw.
Soils found in the Southern Zone are characterized by clay with high salinity and therefore do not support the cultivation of many plants. However, the vegetation in this zone supports grazing for animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. This zone therefore is conducive for livestock and large-scale poultry production which is yet to be exploited. The abundance of clay provides opportunities for pottery and ceramics activities.
DISTRICT ECONOMY
The main economic activities in the district include agriculture (fishing and farming) wholesale/retail trade, agro-processing, informal sector service and commerce. Agriculture and its related activities are the leading economic ventures and employs about 45.5% of the working population in the district. The fishing industry is also very prominent in Senya, a coastal community in the district; this sector employs a large proportion of the working population in Senya. Inland fishing is yet to receive the needed attention since there is growing demand for fresh water fish especially Tilapia. This sector constitutes a tremendous opportunity for the district, potential Investors as well as for both the local and export markets.
The District has a very good potential for irrigation farming. The District can boast of the Ayensu, Kwekude River and dam, Okurudu stream. However, there is the need for the district to undertake measures to utilize this potential.
The northern portion of the district is suitable for pineapple and vegetable production. There are large and medium scale farmers who produce pineapple for export. Bawjiase is noted for its cassava cultivation, hence the Ayensu Starch Factory. Cocoa is also cultivated in Bawjiase area and beyond. Prudent farms is one of the large commercial farms which has about 20 out growers. Other large scale pineapple farmers include Grand mill farms, Jei River Farms and George field farms.
Most of these large Scale farmers use irrigation system powered by pumps along river banks, dams and dug-outs.
Detailed Information on crops produced:-
The major crops produced can be put under 2 (two) classification:
a) Horticultural crops are pineapple, vegetables (pepper and cabbage) water melons, garden eggs, papaya.
  • Area Planted to Selected Food Crops (Ha)
The table below shows the acreage of the major crops cultivated in 2009 and 2010.
CROP 2009 2010
Maize 18,261 20,537
Cassava 29,705 31, 258
Yam 241 388
  • Production of Selected Food Crops ( Mt)
CROP 2009 2010
Maize 31,956.75 38,609.56
Cassava 390026.65 423,858.48
Yam 1342.37 2188.32
  • Average Yield of Selected Food Crop Under Rain fed Conditions -2009 – 2010
Crop Yield (Mt/Ha) 2009 2010
Achievable Yield (Mt/Ha) Achievable Yield (Mt/Ha)
Maize

Cassava
Yam
2.0

15.0
5.8
1.75

13.13
5.57
1.88

13.56
5.64
Agro- processing
Cassava Processing
Besides cassava processing into dough (‘agbelima’) and gari which are sold at Kasoa, Bawjiase and Bontrase market to adjoining districts and even traders from Republic of Togo and Benin, there is the President’s Special Initiative in cassava production that is Ayensu Company Limited located at Bawjiase which is earmarked to produce industrial starch for export. This Initiative has forward and backward linkages; both from the bye-product and for cassava cultivation.
Pineapple and Citrus Production:
The district has enclaves of commercial pineapple farms examples are Jei River farms, George Fields, Prudent, 2K Farms etc. which mainly export raw pineapples. Attempts have made to process pineapple in the District to add. A few processing plants are near completion and to take off. The strategic location of the district in relation to Accra and the Tema port give a comparative advantage for the establishment of these large scale pineapple farms and a processing factory for export and local market. MiDA has also constructed roads and provided pack houses and credit facilities to FBO to facilitate pineapple, pawpaw, citrus production for export and local market.
Vegetable Cultivation: Large quantities of tomatoes are produced in the district. Bonsuoko, and Senya are noted for high seasonal tomato production. However, there is a high post-harvest loss during the season due to lack of storage facilities.
Livestock Population – 2010
Livestock is also kept in the District. The major livestock /poultry are as indicated below:
Goats, Cattle, Piggery and Poultry constitute the main livestock enterprise in the district. The district had a few poultry farm around the Senya and Kasoa areas. A massive injection of capital is required to enable the sector generate wealth for the immediate population and to provide the employment for the many unemployed youth within the district
b) Food crops are maize, cassava, yam, plantain, sweet potato.
c) Perennial crops such as cocoa and oil palm also cultivated.
S/No. CATEGORY TYPE
1. Livestock Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, grass cutter and rabbits
2. Poultry Local fowls, exotic fowls, turkeys and ducks.
Livestock Production figures – 2010
Livestock Sheep Goat Poultry Pig Rabbit Cattle
Production Figures 14000 1700 325000 3000 1500 2960
Constraint to livestock Enterprise
The following are some of the constraints livestock farmers faced in the District
• Inadequate quality feed during the dry season
• Poor management practices (ie feeding and health care) resulting in low productivity
• Fewer watering points especially dams and dug out during the dry season for small and large ruminants
• Occasional shortage of feed ingredients for commercial poultry farmers
• Inadequate credit
• Not well developed livestock market
• Disease outbreaks
Meat Production (Slaughter figures) – 2010
Slaughter figures from the slaughter slab in the district
are indicated below. Currently an autra modern Abbatoir is under contruction at the Kasoa market.
Type of Livestock 2010
Cattle 129
Sheep 144
Goats 277
Pigs 12
Piggery in kind credit facility
The animal Production Directorate supported the DADU to provide a piggery in Kind credit facility to 9 farmers in the District. Beneficiaries will pay in after 2 years. In all 36 breeding pig (34 gilts and 2 Boars0 were given the farmers.
Under the Block farming concept farmers were introduced to new technology for increased yields. Credit facilities in the form ploughing, seed, fertilizers and herbicides were provided to the farmers payable in kind. Details of input cost and recovery is indicated below.
2010 major Season Block farming programme – Production and Recovery
BLOCKS TOTAL HECTARAGE FLOODED AREA AND ACTUAL EXPECTED RECOVERY
CULTIVATED AND COST COST COST OF RECOVERY KIND
AREA COST OF AREA COST OF INPUT FOR MAXI (MAXI
(HA) INPUT (HA) INPUTS RECOVERY BAGS BAGS)
GH¢ (GH¢) (GH¢)
A B C D E = B – D F = E/GH¢ 31 G
Akueku 3.6 1041 0 0 1041 34 7.75
Awutu Bereku 6.4 1442 0.8 180.25 1261.75 40.7 22.0
Bosom Abena 5.2 1942 2.35 877.63 1064.37 34.3 10
Chochoe 14.0 5880 1.84 772.8 5107.2 160 60.25
TOTAL 29.2 10305 5 1830.68 8474.32 269 183. 00

68%
Currently the 2011 Block farm is under way. So far 35 acres of maize and 16 acres of vegetable has been established the project is ongoing.
Fertilizer Subsidy Programme:
The Awutu Senya District participated in the 2010 Government Fertilizer Subsidy programme. In all the following number of bags of various type fertilizers were sold to farmers the subsidized prices. The prices for the types of fertilizer are NPK = GH¢ 27.00; S/A = GH¢ 18.00; Urea GH¢ 25.00. Key importers were Chemico, Yara, and Dizengoff. In
Fertilizer subsidy sales -2010
S/No. Type of Fertilizer Quantity sold

Bags
Beneficiaries
Male females
1. NPK 4630 553 184
2. Sulphate of Ammonia 626 313 104
3. Urea 3376 438 146
TOTAL 8632 1304 434
Special projects
Highlights of special projects undertaken in the district are indicate below includes:
a) MiDA
15 FBOs supported with starter pack to cultivate a total 682 acres of maize established by the farmers
• Twenty eight (28) yield plots were established.
• Awutu Bereku – Bontrase road under contruction
• Ofaakor- Jei river- Loye road also under construction
• Provision of cooling facilities at George Fields 2k farms and Prudent farm
b) EMQAP
• Training of 26 DADU Staff and 240 farmers on good Agricultural practices
• Awareness creation of 100 farmers on GLOBALGAP certification
• Awareness creation of 100 on malarial control
• Provision of subsidized treated mosquito net
c) RTIMP
• Establishment of 3.96 ha of Secondary multiplication fields
d) CODAPEC
• Insecticidal spraying – 2010 season
Hectrage sprayed No. Of farms
1st spraying = 1107 Ha 554
2nd spraying = 871 Ha 456
Achievements in 2010
The Awutu Senya district was created out of the Awutu Effutu Senya District in 2008. But the Awutu Senya DADU became functional with the appointment of a District Director of Agriculture in January2010.
• In 2010, we were able to cultivate 29.2 hectares of maize under the block farm programme and recover 184 numbers of maize bags (maxi) representing 68%.
• Facilitate the sale of 8632 bags of subsidized fertilizers
• Reached 13500 with improved technologies
• Collaborated with CODAPEC to spray 1107 ha of cocoa farms
• Training of 240 farmers on good Agricultural practices on vegetable production
• Through effective dissemination of information on improve agricultural technologies. Through these we are able to help farmers improve their yield.Since the introduction of fertilizer subsidy programme in 2008, there has been an increase in fertilizer application due to farmers’ ability to purchase the subsidized fertilizer. This has had a positive impact on crop yield.

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