Lower Manya Krobo

Capital : Odumasi-Krobo

Location : latitudes 6º 05’N and 6º 30’N and longitudes 0º 08’E and 0º W

Land Area : covers an area of 1,476 sq. km.

Boundaries:It shares boundary with Upper Manya Krobo in the North east,
Yilo Krobo in the West, Dangbe-West in the Southwest and Asuogyaman in East.

Climate:
The district falls within the semi-equatorial climate belt. It has two major seasons, namely the wet and dry seasons. The wet season is from April to early August and from September to October. August is normally dry and cold with November to March being dry and warm. The total amount of rainfall is between 900 mm and 1,150 mm. Relative humidity is high during the wet season between 70% and 80%, low in the dry season about 55% – 60%
Two major winds affect the climate of the district. These are the wet Southwest Trade winds which blow across the district from the Atlantic Ocean between  March and July and the Northeast trade winds (harmattan) from the Sahara Desert between November and early March.

Temperature:
The temperatures are generally high with average ranging
between about 26º C and 32º C

Vegetation: The district falls within the semi-deciduous forest and derived
Savannah zone. The former is divided into the “Fire” and “Inner” zones. The dry semi-deciduous (Fire zone) stretches from the Yilo-Krobo district to the lower part of the Manya district area covering 855 sq. km
Tree types such as the palm; mango, ceiba, neem and cassia are the most widespread

The semi-deciduous (Inner zone) is extensive and stretches through the Upper part of the district. Ceiba (Onyina), neem and cassia are also abundant in this area.

SOIL CLASSIFICATION, CHARACTERISTICS & CROP SUITABILITY

SOIL CLASS CHARACTERISTICS LOCATION IN DISTRICT CROP SUITABILITY
1. Dewasi-Wayo Association. They are shallow, pale- coloured sandy loams, poorly drained not suitable for root crops. These soils are confined to the northern part of the district along the Ponpon river Rice and Vegetables
2. Adomi-Kpevi Association Poorly drained not suitable for most crops. These soils are the predominant soils around the Bukunaw areas Sweet potatoes and Vegetables.
3.Simpa-Aqantaw Association Consist of grey-brown compact or calcareous clays. Found between Odumase southwards Somanya in the Yilo Krobo District. Cassava, yam, maize cocoyam groundnut, sorghum, millet and banbara beans.
4. Akuse-Bambi Association. Poorly drained very dark grey to black, plastic clays occurring within depressing and wide, flat valley bottoms. They are found south of Kpong along the Volta Lake right down to Akuse. Rice, Sugarcane and Vegetables.

Topography:
Generally, the relief is undulating with elevations lying between 50 and 600 meters above sea level.

MAJOR TOWNS:

TOWN DISTANT FROM DISTRICT CAPITAL (ODUMASE)
AKUSE

KPONG

ATUA

22  Km

6   Km

2 Km

COMMODITY PROFILE:

(I)    ESTIMATED AREA, YIELD & PRODUCTION OF MAJOR STAPLES – 2010

CROP AREA UNDER CULTIVATION (HA) YIELD   MT/HA PRODUCTION  MT
MAIZE 7,128 2.8 19,958
RICE 1,500 5 7,500
CASSAVA 6,759 15.8 106,792
YAM 119 19.5 2,321
COCOYAM 10 9.3 93
PLANTAIN 159 13.8 2,194
PEPPER 597 1.2 716
OKRO 50 1 50
COWPEA 70 5.8 406

LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION

SPECIES NUMBER
CATTLE 31,899
SHEEP 12,297
GOATS 13,348
PIGS 1,450
RABBITS 321
FOWLS 53,415
GUINEA FOWLS 4,008
GRASSCUTTER 350

LAND TENURE SYSTEMS:
Land is acquired in the following ways in the district, Individual ownership or inheritance from family. Rent or hiring from land owners.
Mortgage,
share Cropping (Abunu and  Abusa)

AVAILABILITY OF MECHANIZED AREAS
Farm holdings are small and scattered over the area, in some cases at
considerable distance from one another. There is one Mechanization center equipped with five John Deere tractors with accessories in the district.

PLOTS AND FARM SIZES:
Many of the farmers have more than one plot, all small in size and scattered over the area often at considerable distance from one another.

FARM PLOT FOR FARMER

NO. OF PLOTS PERCENTAGES
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

48

22

10

2

2

1

1

2

FARM SIZE DISTRIBUTION

SIZE [HECTARES] PERCENTAGES
Less than    1

1-2

2.1-3

3.1-4

4.1-7

47.0

23.0

8.0

0.7

2.0

FARMING SYSTEMS:
The people of the district, mainly Krobos, are “Huza” farmers most of who settle on their farms. The “Huza” system is practiced mainly at the mid section of the district. Most farmers also practice mix-cropping and land rotation with short fallow periods.

AGRICULTURAL POTENTIALS:
The district stretches across some five different types of soil classes which promote the growth of a range of crops. Crops grown include maize which is cultivated throughout the district while Cassava is cultivated at the mid portions. Plantain is cultivated at Ayemersu, Asitey, Bueyonye and Yonyuase.Rice is cultivated at Kpong and Akuse. Pepper is cultivated alongside the local vegetables at Obelemanya, Ayemersu, Oborpah and Odumase. Mango is also cultivated on large scale in Kpong, Odumase

About 15% of the working population practice livestock farming. Animals reared include cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and grass cutters. Main livestock rearing areas are Akuse, Kpong, Okwenya, and Oborpah.

Fishing is carried out along the Volta Lake and rivers in the following areas: – Kpong, Akuse, Obelemanya and its environs.

Aquaculture/Cage farming is also gaining popularity in Akuse.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES:

The major economic activity in the district is Agriculture. It employs about 69% of the population. Total farm size under cultivation is over 20,250 hectares. A variety of other economic activities are undertaken which generates additional income and serves as a source of employment. There are small scale industrial activities as agro-processing satchet water making, forest products processing, handicrafts making ,beads making etc. Food processing activities include gari-processing, palm oil extraction, distilling of alcoholic beverages and fish smoking. Clay-ware and ceramics, textile and dressmaking and leather works are also undertaken.
Most of these are under sole proprietorship, which employs few people.

POST HARVEST ACTIVITIES:
Modern storage facility systems such as silos warehousing with dry facilities are not in existence in the district. Main types of storage facilities in the use are maize barns, narrow crib and roof top storage. Maize is the only grain that has elaborate storage system. Facilities for the storage of other produce are not available leading to high post harvest losses.

TYPES OF STORAGE FACILITIES

TYPE PERCENTAGE
Roof storage

Traditional Barn

Narrow Crib

Barn/Roof Storage

26.7

54.0

3.3

15.3

POTENTIAL IRRIGATION AREAS:
Areas along the Volta Lake especially Obelemanya, Akuse and Kpong can be irrigated.

RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS:
The University of Ghana has a research station at Kpong. Its areas of research include soils, crops and livestock.

FARM LABOUR
A high degree of manpower is employed in farming activities in the district and majority of farmers are old people.

AGE   DISTRIBUTION

AGE  GROUP PERCENTAGE OF FARMERS
20 – 29

30 – 39

40 – 49

50 – 59

60 – 69

70 – 79

3.3

18.0

25.3

20.7

9.3

2.7

TYPE OF LABOUR USED

TYPE / GROUP PERCENTAGE OF FARMERS
Household only

Hired only

Co-operative only

Household and Hired

Household and other relatives

Hired and other relatives

16.0

33.3

6.0

32.7

2.0

0.7

AGRIC INPUT SITUATION:
Fertilizers. The use of organic manure, chemical fertilizers and other agro chemicals are on a limited scale. The types of fertilizers applied by farmers in the district are compound fertilizers namely ( 20  – 20 – 0 ) , ( 23 – 15 – 5 ) ,  ( 15 – 15 – 15 )  Nitrogen fertilizers like Urea and Sulphate of Ammonia.  About 50 kg of the compound is applied on 0.4 hectares (1 acre) of land and about 25 kg of Urea or 50 kg of Sulphate of Ammonia is applied on 0.4 hectare (1 acre) of land. The distribution of fertilizer has been privatized
farmers use less fertilizer as the prices are too high.

TYPE OF FERTILIZERS APPLIED

FERTILIZER PERCENTAGE
15-15-15

20-20-0

Urea

Compound and Ammonia

Ammonia

Local Manure

Those who apply none

14.7

4.0

15.3

7.3

1.3

1.3

46.7

AGRO CHEMICALS
The use of agro-chemicals in the district is very high due to their high cost of labour. Middlemen take advantage of the supply situation to exploit the farmers. Farmers who buy from traders and middlemen pay between 50% – 100% of the retail prices.

TYPE OF AGO-CHEMICAL

TYPE OF CHEMICAL PRECENTAGE
Fertilizer

Herbicide

Fungicide

Those who do not use any

34

62

2

2

FARM TOOLS:
The farming implements used are cutlasses, hoes, mattock and equipment like tractors and spraying machines. Even though these small scale farmers produce the bulk of the food for the district, they cannot afford labour-saving inputs like tractors due to inadequate funds.

The use of modern agricultural technologies is therefore not extensive. The use of tractor is practiced by a few.

USE OF FARM TOOLS

TOOLS / EQUIPMANT PRECENTAGE OF FARMERS
Cutlass

Hoe

Cutlass & Hoe

Cutlass, Hoe & Mattock

Tractor

Spraying machine

13.3

0.7

40.7

4.7

10.7

20.7

(I)MARKETING SYSTEM:
Urban based middlemen and women within and outside the district play a significant role in the marketing of farm produce. Many of the farmers sell their produce at the nearest local and major markets to these middlemen and women who in turn take them to other marketing centers within and outside the district. Pricing of agricultural produce which is determined by supply and demand, but negotiated by the middlemen is unfavorable to the farmers. Prices of farm produce are very low and a disincentive to the agricultural sector.

(II) MAJOR MARKETING CENTERS:

CENTER DISTANCE FROM DIST. CAPITAL MARKET DAYS
Agormanya 1 km Wednesdays & Saturdays

(III) COMMODITIES SOLD:
All local staples, vegetables, farm inputs, textiles, hardware, pottery, livestock, poultry   products, fish products, edible oil and drugs are sold in the markets.

Odumasi-Krobo

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