The district is located within latitudes 60 20” North and 6050”North and longitudes 00 30”West and 00 00” West.
Covers an area of 885 sq. km constituting 4.8% of the total land area of the Eastern Region.
The district shares boundary with the Volta Lake in the north, Fanteakwa District in the west, Asuogyaman District in east, Yilo Krobo District in the south-west and Lower Manya Krobo in the south-east.
Population Size and Growth Rate
The estimated population of Upper Manya Krobo District as at 2000 stood as 89,646 people.
The Table below shows projected population distribution by the area councils in the district up to 2008.
Projected Population Distributions by Area Councils
|Area Council||Total Population(2008)||%|
Source: Manya Krobo District Water and Sanitation Plan II (2006-2009)
The district falls within the semi-equatorial climate belt. It has two major seasons, namely the wet and dry seasons. The wet season is from April to early August and from September to October. August is normally dry and cold with November to March being dry and warm. The total amount of rainfall is between 900 mm and 1,150 mm. Relative humidity is high during the wet season between 70% and 80% and low in the dry season about 55% – 60%.
Two major winds affect the climate of the district. These are the wet South-west trade winds which blow across the district from the Atlantic Ocean between March and July and the Northeast trade winds (harmattan) from the Sahara desert between November and early March.
The temperatures are generally high with average ranging between about 26º C and 32º C.
Relief and Drainage
The topography of the district can be generally described as undulating. The highest point in the district is over 660 meters above sea level located in the southern part of Sekesua. The lowest area which is located in the south- eastern part of the district is about 50 meters above sea level. The average height of the land is about 452 meters above sea level. Underlying these landmasses are several rocks or parent rocks from which several rocks have developed.
The district is drained with several rivers such as the Volta, Dawado and Anyaboni. With the exception of the Volta River, almost all these rivers are seasonal with most of them overflowing their banks during the rainy season
The dominant vegetation cover is semi-deciduous forest and derived Savannah zone.
Human activities on the vegetation have resulted in scattered patches of secondary or broken forest. Traditional practices such as collection of fuel wood, charcoal burning and overgrazing coupled with climate change have degraded the vegetation. Because of these the semi-deciduous forest is gradually turning into savannah woodland especially at areas like Akateng, Sesiamang and Akotoe.
These activities have resulted in low crop yields, poor soil fertility, surface run-off and erosion among others.
Ceiba (Onyina), neem, mango and cassia are also abundant in the district.
Soil classification, characteristics & crop suitability
|Soil Class||Characteristics||Location In District||Crop Suitability|
|1. Yaya-Pimpimso Bejna Association||The Pimpimso series consist of moderately shallow, reddish brown well drained loose, concretionary sandy loams over lying slopes. The Bejna series consist of moderately deep poorly drained, grey loose loamy sands on narrow valley bottoms||These soils stretch from the northern parts of the district southwards through Asesewa to Otrokper.||Rice, Sugarcane
|2. Dewasi-Wayo Association.||They are shallow, pale-coloured sandy loams, poorly drained not suitable for root crops.||These soils are confined to the northern part of the district along the Ponpon river||Rice and Vegetables, Maize and Cassava|
Land Tenure Systems
Land is acquired in the following ways in the district:
- Individual ownership or inheritance.
- Rent or hiring from land owners.
Land tenure arrangements include;
- Owner occupancy: – This is where the farmer is the owner of the land on which he / she works and provides all the necessary inputs for production.
- Share Tenancy: – This is ‘abunu’ or ‘busa’ share cropping system. Under this system the land owner leases the land to the farmer and the farm produce is shared equally (abunu) or a third goes to the land lord, while two-thirds goes to the tenant (abusa)
Availability of Mechanized Areas
Farm holdings are small and scattered over the district, in some cases at considerable distance from one another. It is therefore uneconomical to introduce mechanization on a large scale. However, individual farmers engage the services of tractors to plough their fragmented lands.
Cutlasses, hoes, mattock, spraying machines and large equipment such as tractors are the farm implements use for farming in the district.
It is extremely difficult for most of the small holder farmers to afford labour saving implements like tractor, simply because they do not have enough funds.
Therefore, only few farmers are able to use modern agricultural technologies.
Also, most of the farmers apply agrochemicals to control weeds and prepare their lands.
Most of the farmers in the district depend on family labour to till their lands. The average age of the farmers is 40-70 years. These farmers are old and do not have enough energy to work for longer hours so their output is usually low.
Hired labour is very expensive and also scarce in the area. Labour is hired mostly during land preparation and harvesting.
There are some few group farms which employ the services of group members to carry out farm activities such as land preparation, planting, weeding and harvesting. Because of the large numbers of the group, they are able to cultivate large areas.
Availability of Excess Farm Lands
The district can boast of large tract of riverine vegetation suitable for all year round irrigation farming. The soils can also support high value crops such chilies, rice and tree crops such as mangoes. This potential if tapped well can turn the district into bread basket of the region.
Below is a map showing the irrigation potential of the district;
The people of the district, mainly Krobos, are Huza farmers. Huza system is a settlement pattern where owners of the lands settle on their farms with their farm families. This system enables the farmers to have frequent visits to their farms and protect their lands from encroachers.
Nonetheless, the system makes extension delivery very difficult, due to the fact that officers have to cover long distances to transfer technology to the farmers who are separated from one another far apart.
Most of these farmers practise mix-cropping and mixed-farming with others engaging in mono cropping.
AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT POTENTIALS
The district is an agricultural one due to the fact that natural resources namely; arable land and water resources abounds in it. The soils in the district are also suitable for a lot of crops, some of which are maize, cassava, rice, vegetables and tree crops.
Yam and cocoyam are cultivated mainly at Sekesua and Sutapong operational areas. Plantain is cultivated in Asesewa and Sekesua zones. Rice is cultivated in Anyaboni zone. Pepper is cultivated alongside the local vegetables at Akotoe, Asesewa, Sekesua and Otrokper.
About 25% of the population practice livestock farming. Animals reared include cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and grasscutters. Asesewa, Anyaboni, Akorkorma, Sesiamang and Sekesua are the main livestock rearing areas.
Fishing is the main activity carried out by the people along the Volta Lake and rivers. Some of these communities are include; Akateng, Akorkorma, Battorkope, Akrusu and Ponponya. People around Akateng and its environs are also engaged in fish production using cage culture.
MAJOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
Agriculture is the main economic activity of the people of the district, employing about 80% of the population. 50% of these people are engaged in crop farming, cultivating 21,226.05 hectares of arable land. Most of the farmers in the district are subsistence farmers with very few commercial ones. The farmers produce food crops such as maize, cassava, plantain and vegetables and tree crops including oil palm and mango.
Also, 20% of the agriculture population is into animal farming. The animals they rear are cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and grasscutters.
Fishers who engage in both wild fishing in the lakes and rivers and cage culture forms 10% of the farming population.
Other income generating activities exist in the district employing about 20% of the total population. These people are mainly traders who engage in the sale of farm produce, operation of provision stores and petty trading. Others also engage in food processing activities such as fish smoking, gari processing, extraction of palm oil and distilling of alcoholic beverages
Operators of commercial vehicles also employ a number of the youth in the district.
One rural bank and two private investment companies located at Asesewa also employ a portion of the population.
Below is a table showing the main income generating activities in the district:
MAJOR SOURCES OF INCOME
|SOURCES OF INCOME||PERCENTAGE (%)|
|Sale of farm produce||44.7|
|Sale of animals||23.7|
|Sale of furniture||1.2|
Source: Manya Krobo District Medium Term Development Plan (2006-2009)
PRODUCTION FIGURES FOR CULTIVATED CROPS
|Crop||No. of Holders||Area Under Cultivation
|Total Estimated Production
LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY REARED IN THE DISTRICT
|Type of Animal||Number|
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
The district has four zones (4) namely; Asesewa, Sekesua, Anyaboni and Sesiamang zones and Twenty (20) operational areas within which extension services are delivered to the farmers. Farmers are assisted through home visits, field days and demonstrations where modern agricultural technologies are transferred to them to increase food production in the district.
No storage facilities exist for fruits, vegetables and other perishable farm produce in the district, therefore, farmers are compiled to sell their produce fresh.
Even though, some modern storage facilities such as silos warehousing exist in the district, they need complete renovation to be fully utilized. Therefore, traditional barns, narrow cribs and roof top storage serve as the main storage facilities for maize.
Post harvest loss in the district is high because of lack of storage facilities.
In the fisheries and animal production sectors, there are no cold storage facilities to store the slaughtered animals and fishes.
Agricultural Input Use
The farmers use improved and local seeds. The improved or certified seeds are obtained from accredited agrochemical shops while the local seeds are obtained from farmers’ previous crop harvest.
Chemical fertilizers and organic manure are used to increase soil fertility in the district but on a small scale.
The chemical fertilizers include, compound fertilizers such as NPK 15:15:15 and NPK 23:10:05 and nitrogenous fertilizers such as Sulphate of Ammonia and Urea.
About 50% of the farmers, who use fertilizer, apply NPK 15:15:15 and Sulphate of Ammonia.
Poultry droppings and cow dug is used by very few farmers to improve fertility of the soil.
The rate of fertilizer application is 100kg of compound fertilizer per acre. For the nitrogenous fertilizers, the application rate is 50kg per acre.
Due to high prices of fertilizers about 50% of the farmers do not apply any form of fertilizer at all.
Agrochemical use especially herbicides have become very common among farmers in the district. This is due to the laborious nature of the slash and burn system of land preparation and also presence of tree stumps on the land.
Some maize, mango and vegetable farmers also use pesticides and fungicides to control pests and diseases.
Marketing of Agricultural Products
Markets play a very vital role in the agricultural value chain. The district can boast of three major markets. During the various market days, middlemen from within and outside the district undertake marketing of the farm produce. Majority of these marketers are wholesalers who buy the produce in bulk and transport them to urban marketing centers.
The prices of the various commodities in the district depend on the season of the year or demand and supply of the commodity at a time. Prices of commodities are generally low during the major season where there is glut on the market. The lean season usually records very high prices of produce since demand for the commodities is high during this period.
Even though prices of farm produce are determined by demand and supply, middlemen usually bargain with the farmers for low prices in order to maximize their profit; a situation which is unfavourable to the farmers.
MAJOR MARKETING CENTERS
There are three main marketing centers in the district even though few community markets exist. These are Asesewa, Akateng and Sekesua markets. The busiest of the three markets is Asesewa. Below is a table showing the various market days.
MAJOR MARKETING CENTERS
|NAME OF MARKET||MARKET DAYS|
|Asesewa||Mondays and Fridays|
|Akateng||Wednesdays and Thursdays|
Raw materials and processed goods are sold on these markets. A variety of local staples, vegetables, agro-inputs, textiles, hardware, handicrafts, livestock, poultry products, fish products, edible oil and industrial goods are also sold on these markets.
There is also a cattle market at Akateng, a fishing community.
MAJOR TOWNS AND ROAD NETWORKS
|TOWN||DISTANT FROM DISTRICT CAPITAL (ASESEWA)|
Road network in the district is generally poor. The road from Otrokper to Asesewa is tarred. However, the road linking Asesewa to Akateng; a major fishing and marketing community is tarred up to Sesiamang with the rest untarred. From Akatewiah to Sekesua and from Korlewa to Anyaboni were tarred but are now in a very deplorable state.
The feeder road linking Sekesua to Tenguanya and that linking Asesewa through Akumersu have been graveled. All other feeder roads are in very poor state. The poor nature of the roads is seriously affecting transportation of agricultural produce from the farming communities to the marketing centers mainly during the rainy season.
AGRICULTURAL INTERVENTION PROJECTS
The government through its development partners is currently running various projects in the district geared towards poverty reduction among the farming population. These projects include;
- Millennium Development Authority(MiDA) Program
- Root and Tuber Improvement Project (RTIMP)
- Export Marketing and Awareness Project (EMQAP)
Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) Program
MiDA program is aimed at reducing poverty among farmers through agriculture transformation. Under this program fourteen (14) Farmer Based Organizations (FBOs) benefitted from business and technical training as well as an acre worth of starter pack (farm inputs). The idea was to orientate the mind of the farmer to think like a business person rather than farming as a way of life. After the technical training he is to put all that he has learnt into practice by cultivating an acre of land.
The district is again one of the beneficiaries of Agricultural Business Center (ABC) which is currently under construction by MiDA to promote marketing of cereals and also reduce post harvest loss of cereals.
Few of the farmers benefitted from credit facilities to expand their farms and participate in the export market.
Below is the list of the MiDA FBOs in the district:
MiDA FARMER BASED ORGANIZATIONS (FBOs)
|No.||Name of FBO||FBO
|1||Milenorvisi Farmers Association||SHB051201C0CF01||26||24||50||Battorkope|
|2||Akotoe Millennium Farmers Association||SHB051201C0CF02||35||15||50||Akotoe|
|3||Norvilolor Farmers Association||SHB051201C0CF03||25||16||41||Akokoma Sisi|
|4||Upper Manya Unity Farmers Association||SHB051208G01||34||16||50||Anyaboni|
|5||Ogome Dawa Farmers Association||SHB051207G03G01||24||24||48||Ogome Dawa|
|6||Piengwa Dawa Farmers Association||SHB051207G001||30||16||46||Piengwa Dawa|
|7||Abude Farmers Association||SHB051201G009||28||16||44||Abude|
|8||Upper Manya Dademantseme Union||SHB051201G01||20||11||31||Asesewa|
|9||Emmanuel Farmers and Marketing Association||SHB051201P2LF01||00||42||42||Asesewa|
|10||Kakepemi Farmers Association||SHB051201P2LF02||00||39||39||Asasehene|
|11||Upper Manya Zone Mango Farmers Cooperative||SHB051201P2LF06||30||06||36||Mensah Dawa|
|12||Otrokper Suomi Farmers Association||SHB05120P2LF05||20||10||30||Otrokper|
|13||Triumphant Food Growers Association||SHB01CF01||36||14||50||Mensah Dawa|
|14||Akateng Manya Farmers Association||SHB051201G006||30||20||50||Akateng|
Root and Tuber Improvement Project (RTIMP)
Under RTIMP project, the district is benefiting from improve cassava planting material multiplication. The improved varieties for multiplication are Bankye, hemaa and Afisiafi.
The target for 2011 activities includes cultivation of 10 acres of secondary and 62.5 acres of tertiary cassava planting materials. Two Hundred Sixty (260) farmers are expected to benefit from the project this year.
Export Marketing and Awareness Project (EMQAP)
A number of training workshops, sensitization meetings, home and farm visits aimed at building farmers capacity to increase productivity for export marketing have been organized for farmers and MoFA staff since 2010 when the project was initiated in the district.
More than Two Hundred and Fifty (250) farmers belonging to Six (6) Farmer Based Organizations have benefitted under the project. Most of the trainings were centered on chilies and mango production for local and export markets.
Farmers have also received basic training in Globalgap certification to enable them participate in the export market.
NGOs and CBOs OPERATING IN THE DISTRICT
|NAME OF NGO/CBO||PROGRAMME|
|Plan Ghana||Assists in child centered initiatives i.e. education, health and social services|
|Hunger Project||Poverty reduction and HIV/AIDs Education and Prevention|
|Social Support Foundation||Involved in HIV& AIDS education and prevention, care and support services, child survival and rehabilitation of trafficked children.|
|Center for Community and Rural Development||Advocates in the areas of health, education and environment.|
|Nubians Renewal||Involved in the protection of the environment|