Location and size
Tema Metropolitan area is a coastal district situated about 30 kilometers east of Accra, the capital city of Ghana. It shares boundaries on the North East with the Dagme West District (DWD), Southwest by Ledzekuku Krowor Municipal , Northwest by Adenta Municipal and the Ga East Municipal (GEMA) North by the Akuapim South District and the south by the Gulf of Guinea. The Ashaiman Municipal is in- lock district within the TMA. The Metropolis covers an area of 396km and lies within the coastal savannah zone.
The Greenwich meridian (i.e. Longitude 0) passes through the Metropolis, which meets the equator or latitude 0 in the Ghanaian waters in the Gulf of Guinea. The southern tip of the Metropolis lies on the latitude 541 north. The Metropolis proximity to the sea with its low lying terrain which projects into the sea makes a natural endowment for harbor hence the construction of Tema harbor making the district “The Eastern Gateway of Ghana”. Tema came into focus in 1957 when the government decided to construct a port at the Metropolis natural harbor to serve as the main import entries into the country.
The topography of the Tema Metropolitan area is generally flat and forms part of the coastal plains, ranging from 0m south to 35m north above sea level. The terrain of the district barely rises up to 65m high. The almost flat nature of the Metropolis has made the district flood prone and therefore high cost of construction of drainage.
Soils in Tema Metropolis are composed of sand clay humus, gravel and stone. The sandy and humus nature of the soil support the cultivation of vegetable. Clay which supports bricks making also have adverse effect in support of building foundations. Sand winning and stones quarry provide employment opportunities for a section of the people in the Metropolis.
Sand winning, though it is a legitimate economic activity which requires licensing from the Minerals Commission and environmental permit from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), its adverse effect are numerous, notable among them are agricultural lands that are taken over for winning and even areas where winning is long completed still has heaps on the top soil that takes a longer time before land is suitable for agricultural purposes again. Secondly, the land is left with wide and sometimes very deep pits which collect water during rainfall which serves as a breeding ground for mosquitoes.
The Metropolis lies in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. It enjoys a dry equatorial climate. Mean annual rainfall rages between 730mm to 790mm. the rainy season is usually from April to July (major rainy season) and from September to November (Minor rainy season) the highest amount of rain is experienced in May, June and early July. Temperatures are high all year round with significant daily and seasonal variations.
The annual average temperature ranges between 25°C and 30°C in the major rainy season while in the minor season temperatures range between 34 C and 40 C
Humidity varies from 60%- 80% or more in the wet season to less than 30% in the dry season. Wind generally of low velocity blow over the area from the south during the day and evening and from the west in the night and early morning.
As a result of Tema being an industrial hub and the absence of reserve forest in the area, some areas were demarcated and reserved as greenbelt zones to control the micro climate of Tema (Climate condition in relatively small area). The number of industries and waste generated increases in the Metropolis without a corresponding increase in afforestation to absorb excess carbon dioxide generated by these factories, also areas that were reserved as green belts are encroached upon by people and developed as residential areas. These can lead to negative changes in weather condition and its associated effects such as loss of biodiversity, erratic rainfall pattern.
The vegetation zones in the Metropolis comprise of the following: shrub land, grassland and few semi deciduous forests. The grassland in areas such as Appollonia, Gbetsile, Santeo, Katamansu etc. supports livestock farming.
The Metropolis is underlain by the Precambrian rocks of the Dahomeyan formation, metamorphic rocks mainly consisting of granite gneiss and schist probably derived from sedimentary layers. These rocky formations are weathered or decomposed at the surface with a thickness of the weathered component not exceeding 12m. This creates some employment in the form of stone quarrying. Geological resources such as salt deposits exist at Kpoi- Etc.
The streams in the Metropolis are seasonal in nature, they do not flow throughout the year. A number of streams however flow through depressions into the sea during the rainy season. Notable among them are the Gynakorgyor (flow into the Gao Lagoon between Manhean and Kpone.). Water from the industrial area and the Eastern part of the township converge into a major drain ending up in the Chemu Lagoon located between the harbor area and Tema Manhean. These have contributed to the biological death of the Chemu lagoon. Chemicals washed from the industries pollute and destroy the aquatic life of lagoon.
The demographic characteristics of the Tema Metropolis concern the statistical analysis of its human population especially with reference to size and density, distribution and vital statistics. This will provide an indispensible source of information for planning in the metropolis.
Population Size and Growth
According to the 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census and Household Survey, the total population of the Metropolis was 298,432 with males and females forming 49% and 51% of the population respectively. With a growth rate of 2.6% the population as at the time GPRS II 2006 was prepared and estimated at 348,815 subsequently the current population size could be estimated at about 387,045 and expected to reach 418,444 by the end of 2013.
The Metropolitan population growth rate of 2.6% per annum is quite on the low side when compared with the regional and national figure of 4.4% and 2.7% respectively.
The population density measured as the number of persons per square kilometer of the metropolis has not been estimated due to some problems with demarcating the boundaries of the metropolis. However the 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census which was conducted when the Metropolis was a Municipality with AdMA and ASHMA being part estimated the population density at 1,278.7. The current situation is not expected to have changed much and is largely due to the fact that the metropolis is a recipient of large influx of migrants.
Land Use of Tema Metropolitan Area
The total land coverage of Tema Metropolitan Area is approximately 369 sq. km. Out of this about 45% has been planned, approved and developed. The major land uses that make up of the Metropolis are residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural and social accessible facilities.
Residential land use
Is the living area in the Metropolis. Currently, it’s about 36% of the total land use of the land. The residential land use has shaped the settlement pattern of the Metropolis
Industrial Land Use
Is approximately 7.5% of the total land area. It is the pulling factor of influx of people into the southern parts of the Metropolis and into the City of Tema seeking for employment thus creating slums and squatters zones. The industrial pollutions of sound, odour, dust and carbon are setbacks to the development of the Metropolis. The heavy trucks, articulators and trailers plying the roads in the Metropolis reduce the life span of the roads.
Commercial Land Use
Commercial land use and activities in the Metropolis is estimated to be 4.1% of the total land area. Commercial activities are concentrated in the urban centers and along some major radial roads like the Spintex road, Akosombo road etc. The biggest commercial concentration is located at the Central Business District (CBD) of the city of Tema. The harbor, the main entry point for imported goods and services into the country, its magnetic factor couple with the industries have promoted these commercial activities in the Metropolis. On the other hand, the activities within the proposed Green Belt zones are destroying the intended purpose of such belts which were created to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by the industries and in return give out oxygen to the dwellers of the city.
It takes about 20% of the total land area. Agricultural practice in general in the Metropolis is more of subsistence farming. This is mainly practiced at the peripheral areas, which is their major source of livelihood. Types of food crops grown include maize and cassava. Alongside these crops are animal rearing. The urban centers also engage in market-gardening to produce vegetables like onions, okro, tomatoes, pepper and exotic vegetables like cabbage, carrots, lettuce, cucumber, cauliflower etc for sale. The major problem associated with farming in the Metropolis is shrinking of size of farmlands due to estate development. Other problems are destruction of crops by cattle and scanty rainfall which is not able to sustain the farming practice throughout the year.
The significance of agriculture to the national and regional economies cannot be over emphasized and this is not different in the case of Tema. Though majority of the people are in the industrial and the service sector, agriculture also employs about 19.0 % of the population. The agricultural system in the Metropolis is largely on subsistence basis, where farmers cultivate with the use of simple farm tools for sale and for consumption purposes. The agricultural sector includes food crops farming, livestock production and fishing.
Farming activities in the Metropolis is mainly done in the rural areas and within some of the urban communities. Some of the crops cultivated include onion, okro, cassava, maize, tomato and pepper. The production of these crops has been reducing over the years due to urbanization in the Metropolis which has greatly affected the availability of farm land for farming as can be seen in the table below (page.)
Crop Production Levels From 2008-2010
|YEAR||CROP||NO.OF HOLDERS||ESTIMATED AREA CULTIVATED(HA)||ESTIMATED YIELD (MT)||ESTIMATED PRODUCTION (MT)||AVERAGE FARM SIZE (HA)|
The livestock sub-sector also contributes towards the economy of the metropolis. Livestock production activities focus mainly on poultry (local & exotic fowls, guinea fowls turkey etc), and rearing of ruminants such as cattle sheep and goats and others like pigs, grass cutters, rabbits etc.. There are various systems used in keeping livestock in the Metropolis and they are the Intensive, Semi-intensive and Free range.
Livestock production level (2008-2010)
|Poultry ( Exotic)||291,458||121,303||110,421|
The total above shows the production levels of the various livestock products from year 2008 to 2010. It can be noted that the total production levels of the various livestock products in the Metropolis have been decreasing over the years. Apart from the increase in guinea fowl production, other factors responsible for the decrease in total production include difficulty in accessing loans to purchase improved breeds, high cost of inputs, urbanization, seasonal outbreaks of bush fires destroying grazing fields and large scale importation of frozen meat and poultry products.
The metropolis has two (2) standard abattoirs and one (1) slaughter slab at the cattle market at Tulaku near the capital Tema.
There are five (5) meat processing facilities located in the metropolis with a huge market for meat and meat products.
Data on fish landings from selected landing beaches were collected and sent to MFRD for processing. A projected inshore fleet landing stands at 2008.43mt. The same period last year recorded 270.90mt. indicating a decrease of 9%. This may be due to the ban on light fishing.
Situation reports on daily movements of all motorized vessels except the canoes at the Tema Fishing Harbour were compiled and sent to the Directorate of Fisheries for their perusal. The average number of vessels which operated on a monthly basis from the Tema Fishing harbour for the past two years is as shown below:
Fishing Vessel Registration and Licensing
No new vessel was registered while a total of seven thousand five hundred Ghana Cedis, forty – five pesewas (GH¢7,500.45) was collected from (32) inshore vessels as licensing fees. Last year, four thousand three hundred and thirteen Ghana Cedis, (GH¢ 4,313.00)) was collected as licensing fees from ten (10) inshore vessels.
There Are Forty Two Cold Stores, Out Of These, Twenty One (21) Are Operational With Serviceable Capacity Of 45,142mt
Canoe Fish Catch Statistics In Metric Tonnes
INFORMATION ON SPECIAL PROJECTS
LIVESTOCK ACTIVITIES IN TMA
- COCKEREL PROJECTS
The government of Ghana initiated two livestock projects to improve the living conditions of the rural farmer in 2010-2011.
In 2010, three batches of Cockerels numbering 850 were distributed to 40 farmers. Each farmer received 20 birds. The beneficiaries were made up of 28 males and 12 females.
In 2011, 600 range broilers were distributed to 30 farmers in 7 communities eg Gbetsile,
Oyibi, Borteiman etc.
Beneficiaries have since sold their birds which weighed between 2.5-3kg and used the profits to support their family needs.
PIG CREDIT-IN-KIND PROJECT
The Pig Credit –in- Kind Project initiated by the government in January 2011 as a poverty alleviation program and also support farmers affected by flood which caused destruction to their farms in 2010.
In Tema Metropolis, 10 farmers made up of 8 males and 2 females from 6 communities benefited from 40 gilts (young sows). Each farmer had 4 gilts for breeding for a period of 2years. Currently the gilts have matured and seventeen (17) has farrowed with an average litter size of ten (10).
Ten (10) of the sows are pregnant for the second time and seven (7) for the first time.
Eight (8) have been served and are under observation.
In the first quarter of this year, beneficiaries will transfer four (4) gilts each to seven (7) new farmers selected to achieve continuity of the program and also its set objective of poverty alleviation.
SUBSIDIZED FERTILIZER PROGRAMME-TEMA METRO
MAY – NOVEMBER 2011
|TYPE OF FERTILIZER||TOTAL NO. OF BAGS RECEIVED (50KG)||TOTAL NO. OF BAGS
SOLD OUT (50KG)
|SUBSIDY TO BE PAID BY GOVT. (GHC)|
|Sulphate of Ammonia||4,901||4,901||73,515|
BLOCK FARM PROGRAMME
2011 BLOCK FARM PROGRAMME
The Directorate continued with the Block Farm Program module of the National Youth in Agriculture programme. Two hundred and fifty youth in the metropolis were assisted with credit to cultivate a total of Two hundred and eighty (280) acres of Onion, maize and tomatoes. The program was very successful but farmers refusal to pay for credit in kind advanced to them is negatively affecting the sustainability of the program. Out of a total amount of GH¢85,189.00 credit provided, GH¢38,000 has been recovered to date leaving a balance of GH¢47,186.00 representing 44.60%.
ALLOCATIONS FOR 2011 BLOCK FARM PROGRAMME
PLANNED ACREAGES TO CULTIVATE
ALLOCATIONS FOR 2011 BLOCK FARM PROGRAMME
Block farm programme.
MALARIA AWARENESS CREATION IN THE TEMA METROPOLIS
MOH/ MOFA/ EMQAP COLLABORATION
MOFA-EMQAP in collaboration with Ministry of Health organized a training program for selected focal persons to educate farm families on malaria control.
Malaria education was carried out in four communities whist HIV/AIDS education was in two communities and also for staff of the directorate.
Two hundred and twenty-two (222) people were educated on malaria and one hundred and fifty (150) on HIV/AIDS during group meetings.
Fifty (50) participants were counselled and screened for HIV/AIDS.
One hundred (100) Insecticide Treated Nets (I.T.N) were sold out to farmers.
One hundred and twenty (120) farmers were sensitized on GLOBALGAP and Certification at a training workshop organized for producers of horticultural crops.
WEST AFRICA AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY PROGRAM (WAAPP)
INFORMATION ON ACHIEVEMENTS:
Achievement of laurels at Regional and National levels at 2011 National Farmers Day Celebration
|2011||Regional Best Processor
Regional Best Cattle Farmer
Regional Best Agroforester
|National Best Livestock Farmer|