Location and Size
The Wa East district was curved out of the former Wa District and made a district by L.I 1746 in July 2004. The district is located in the south eastern part of the Upper West region. Funsi, the district capital is about 115km away from Wa which is the regional capital. The district shares boundaries with West Mamprusi to the northwest, West Gonja to southeast and the Sissala East district to the north. It has a landmass of about 3,196.4km², which is located between latitudes 9º 55′ and 10º 25’n and longitude 1º 10’w and 2º 5’w. The district occupies 17.3% of the total landmass of the region (18,478.4Km2). The remoteness of the district relative to other districts of the region has deprived it of basic social and economic infrastructure and services.
Topography and Drainage
The land is generally undulating with height between 180-1300m above sea level. Drainage in the district is the dendrite type, dominated by the Kulpawn River and its tributaries. Most of the rivers over flow their banks during the rainy seasons and render most parts of the district inaccessible during this period. However, they dry up during the dry season. These rivers provide vast potentials for the construction of irrigation dams for dry season farming.
Geology and Soil
The district consists mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks and they are noted for deposits of gold, iron and bauxite. Illegal Small scale mining activities are therefore taking place in communities such as Bulenga, Duu, Johnfia and Donyukura. The rocks also offer opportunities for a vibrant quarrying industry and their artistic nature present attraction for tourists.
The soils are mainly sandy loamy which are very fertile and suitable for the cultivation of tubers, cereals, legumes etc. Some soils have low inherent fertility with poor physical characteristics due to continuous cropping leading to low yields in such areas
The climate is tropical equatorial, which prevails throughout the northern part of Ghana. Temperatures are high all-year, reaching its peak in March/April during which there could be an outbreak of Ceribo Spinal Meningitis. During this period temperatures could reach as high as 42cº. The temperatures are lowest in December/January, with temperatures about 22cº. The Harmattan, characterized by cold, dry dusty wind with occasional haze occurs between Novembers to April.
The district has a single rainfall regime, May-October. The average annual rainfall is about 1,200mm/year and they are torrential, erratic and stormy. The torrential and stormy nature of the rainfall annually comes with the destruction of buildings and farmlands. The single rainfall regime does not make farming all year round possible. Most farmers therefore become redundant during the long dry season, from November to May. There is therefore the need for irrigation facilities in the district to provide employment opportunities during this period.
The vegetation is made up of scattered trees, shrubs and grasses of varying heights. The common trees in the district include shea, baobab, kapok, dawadawa, acacia, neem, ebony, mangoes, cashew and acheaple. Annual bush burning, inappropriate farming practices, indiscriminate cutting of trees for wood, charcoal and poor animal husbandry practices have destroyed 30 percent of the natural vegetation. The district is also blessed with the Ambalaara forest reserve, which has various species of animals namely antelopes, baboons, monkeys and lions. The grassy nature of the vegetation which is excellent for grazing annually attracts large numbers of alien Fulani herdsmen into the district. The influx of these Fulani herds of cattle has a very negative and devastative effect on the environment. Fields are left bare due to due over grazing. Also food crops both in storage and on farm are some times destroyed by the cattle.
Table 1: Status of potable water facilities in the Wa East district
|Boreholes||HDW with pump||Small Water system||Dams/dugouts|
Sex and Age Distribution
The district’s has a low sex ratio of 100 males to 103 females. The population of the district is youthful comprising 47% (between 0-14 years), 49% between 15-60 years and 4% over 60 years old. The district therefore has a high dependency ratio.
The soil fertility in the district has attracted migrant farmers and Fulani herdsmen from the nearby districts of Nadowli and Jirapa/Lambussie into the district. This has served to expand crop and livestock production. However, the destruction of farmlands by Fulani herdsmen and the environmental degradation which result from their activities often bring them into conflict with the local people. There is also a migration of people out of the district especially in the dry season. The youth who formed the majority of the lobour force moved down south to search for miniature jobs.
INVESTMENTS IN AGRICULTURE
Potential investment opportunities exist in agriculture in the district. These include the following;
- Lowland /valley bottoms for expanded irrigation and rice production.
- Suitable land for tree crops cultivation (mango and cashew).
- Vast land for cash crops cultivation (cotton, soya beans, industrial maize).
- Water bodies for culture fish production (aquaculture).
- Large wild shea nuts picking and processing (women).
Investments in the agricultural sector are still very low as compared to the potentials mention above. A lot needs to be done to ensure the full exploitation of these potentials.
2. MAJOR CROPS PRODUCED
The major crops produced in the District and the production levels are included in table one below for 2008 – 2010
Table 1 Production levels of major crops
|CROP||ACHIEVABLE MT/HA||ACTUAL (MT/HA)||ACTUAL LAND AREA||ACTUAL PRODUCTION (MT)|
3. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
There is a high potential for livestock and poultry production in the district. It is the second most important agricultural activity under taken by farmers for income generation and home consumption.
The major livestock and poultry kept by farmers include cattle, sheep goats, swine, rural poultry, guinea fowls turkeys, ducks and pigeons.
Farmers greatly supplement their incomes from livestock and poultry.
Table: Production of Livestock and Poultry
Data on fertilizer subsidy programme are indicated in table below
Table: Fertilizer Subsidy
|FERTILIZER TYPE||QUANTITY SUBSIDISED IN 50KG BAGS||REMARKS|
|NPK 15:15:15||3,596||4900||Nil||Farmers purchased direct from distributors in Wa.|
There are about thirteen (13) special projects being implemented in the district through donor support and NGOs. Details of such projects are indicated in the table below.
Table 6: Special Project
|NAME/TYPE OF PROJECT||SPONSORS||INTERVENTIONS AREAS||AMOUNT INVOLVED||YEAR STARTED||YEAR END|
|Livestock Development Project (LDP)||AfDB/GOG||
|Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme (RTIMP)||IFAD
|Northern Rural Growth Programme
|Rice Sector Support Project (RSSP)||French Dev’t Agency||
|N2 Africa Project.
|Bill Gate Foundation||
|AGRA Soil Health Project (AGRA SHP)||Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa||
|Plan Ghana-EU Food Facility Project.||European commission Plan Ireland||
Northern Ghana Food Security Resilience \project. (NGFCRP)
|EUROPEAN Commission (EC)
|Concern Universal/UNDP Food Security Facility Project||EC/UNDP||
|Africa 2000 Net Works/UNDP Programme||UNDP||
|Plan Ghana Animal Projection Project||
|Special Rice Initiation Project (MOFA/SARI/DDO Collaboration)||CRS||
|PROMISO 2 PROJECT.
Promoting millet and sorghum production. (MOFA/SARI Collaboration)
|European Commission (EC)||
Table: Special Programme
|NAME/TYPE OF PROGRAMMES||INTERVENTIONS AREAS||FUNDING SOURCE||YEAR STARTED||YEAR END|
|Youth In Agric. Production (Block Farms)||
||GOG||2008||Up to date 2010|
|Fertilizer subsidy/ coupons programme||
||GoG||2008||Up to date|
|Farmer registration exercise||
|FAO Support to 2007/2008 Flood Victims production||
|PRONET GHANA Support for Vegetables production.||
||UNDP/African 2000 NW||2007||2009|
Key DADU achievements over the years in the agricultural sector are;
Expanded crops technologies adoption by farmers who participated in the various crops production packages. An average of about 60% adoption by farmers who were reached out with extension messages through demonstrations and other projects interventions was achieved. The table bellow indicates summaries of achievements.
Table 8: Achievement
|ACTIVITY INDICATORS||INDICATORS LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENTS OR OUTPUTS (MT)|
|Percentage increase in yields of major crops in;
|Percentage increase in number of livestock;
|Extension services delivery;
Numbers of farmers reached with improved technologies
|Number of farmers reached with livestock technologies||3479 farmers
|Numbers of on-farm demos conducted with farmers||50 acres of on farm demonstrations plots with 50 farmers. Maize /cowpea.||54 demos plots of one acre each of maize and livestock (pigs /poultry)||19 demos on maize, cowpea, groundnuts, soya beans established|
|Numbers of farmers reached out with food processing and nutrition education (WIAD)||746 farmers
|Number of field days conducted on demonstrations||150 field days
|100 field days
|16 fields days
480 participants (male=160, female=320)
|Conduct farmers registration in communities||0||0||5,832 farmers
|Support to farmers for dry season vegetables production (FAO)||10 water pumps and accessories supplied to 7 farmers groups (FAO)
(Seeds, fertilizers and chemicals supplied)
|23 water pumps supplied to 20 farmer groups (FAO) (Seeds, fertilizers and chemicals supplied )||2 water pumps supplied to one women group. Kpaliwurgu (FAO)|
|Rehabilitation and construction of small dams and dugouts /boreholes||0||Four dams /dugouts rehabilitated at Manwe Loggu, Kundugu and Goripie GTZ /GIDA||One dugout constructed at Tisa (LPD)
One borehole drilled at Baayiri (LPD)
|Establishment of block farms
(Gain + Seed)
|39.2ha sorghum-kapaala cultivated by 7 groups (recovery 27.61%)||177.6ha of maize,
Recovery 797.5 bags (52.66%)
Rice cultivated by 5 farmers.
|434.4ha cultivated 1,232 bags recovery out of 2,975bags (41.41%)|
|Supply of fertilizer coupons to farmer subsidy programme||15-15-15
Sulphate of ammonia
Sulphate of ammonia
Farmers made direct purchase from distributers
|Supply of inputs for expanded crops production under European Commission food security projects with plan Ghana, ADRA, concern universal||–||–||Plan Ghana supported with 20,000 bags of 23-10-05 and 10,000 bags of urea for maize and soya beans production (20,000 acres) (8,000 ha)
ADRA supported with 2,508 bags of NPK and 1,254 bags of sulphate of ammonia for cultivating 2254 acres of maize (901.6 ha)
Concern universal supported with 400 bags of NPK and 260 bags of S /A for cultivation of 200 acres of maize (80ha).
Maize and soya beans production increased in the district in 2010
|Establishment of improved cassava planting materials under (RTIMP)||3.1 acres (1.24 ha) secondary multiplication plots planted by 3 farmers.||Nil||5.0 acres (2ha.) secondary multiplication farms planted by 5 farmers|
|Establishment of tertiary farms||Tertiary fields planted by 374 farmers.||65.25 acres (20.1ha) tertiary fields planted by 261 farmers.|
|Support to women groups with agro processing machines
(Africa 2 NW /UNDP)
|–||Three machines supplied to three groups (Loggu, Bulenga, Manwe)||–|
|Support to farmers for bullock ploughing
|30 bulls supplied to 3 women groups in Chaggu, Tineabe , Holomuni.||10 bulls supplied to one women group at Sombisi||–|
|Number of livestock vaccinated against major diseases.||15,225 animals vaccinated.
GH 1,059.50 generated
|9,426 animals vaccinated.
GH 3,026.91 generated
|13,801 animals vaccinated.
GH 4,175.50 generated
|Number of fodder banks established for small ruminants feeding||6 acres fodder banks of cajanus||6 acres fodder banks of cajanus||8 acres fodder banks of cajanus.|
|Number of farmers awarded at district national farmers days celebrations.||20 award winners honored||27 winners honored||25 winners honored|
|Number of farmers educated on the effects of HIV /AID’S, malaria and guinea worm preventions on control management||2,640 farmers
LOCATION OF SOME OTHER OFFICE BRANCHES;
The district capital is Funsi with four zonal centers namely; Funsi, Bulenga, Kulkpong, and Baayiri. There are seventeen operational areas namely; Funsi, Buffimah, Kundugu, Baayiri, Gudaayiri, Kpalinye, Jankore, Bulenga, Katua, Ducie, Manwe, Kulkpong, Loggu, Tanina, Goh, Yaala and Chasia.