Adansi South

INTRODUCTION

DEMOGRAPHICS

Adansi South District Assembly (ASDA) is one of the 27 Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The District was carved out of the erstwhile Adansi West and Adansi East with Legislative instrument LI (1752) in 2004. It is situated at the South western part of the Ashanti Region. The District shares borders with Central and Eastern Regions; to the south and west respectively, and with Adansi North, Obuasi Municipal, Bosome Freho in the Ashanti Region to the north-east, North-West, and South-west respectively. The District’s capital is New Edubiase which is about 92km from Kumasi on the main Kumasi-Bekwai-Cape Coast trunk road. It is bounded to the west by River Offin and the east by River Pra. It is worthy to note that there are also two confluences within the District, namely; the confluences of Rivers Offin and Pra and Birim and Pra respectively. The respective sites of the confluences could be a huge tourism potential for the District for revenue mobilization.

Total population of the District                         :  98,437 with 1,767 communities

Population Growth Rate    :  2.7%

Geographic Location                                     :  Latitude 40 40” N and 6o 22 N;

Longitude 1 o W and 1o 33”W.

The district is inhabited by many of the country’s ethnic population, which includes the Northerners, Krobos, Ewes, Fantis, Akwapims, Akims and the indigenous Adansi of Ashanti. These multi-ethnic settlers have come from near and far to engage in the cocoa farming which is the principal economic activity in the District. The district is made up of two constituencies namely New Edubiase and Akrofuom Constituencies. The District covers an area of 889sqkm; about 4% of the total area  of Ashanti Region.

LAND USE, VEGETATION, SOILS AND CLIMATE

Land Use (Specific to Agriculture)

Total land area covers an area of 899km2

Farmer population is estimated at 78.5% of the total population (77,273)

The main occupation of the people in the District is agriculture involving the production of crops, rearing of animals, trading in agricultural produce and products and carpentry.

The major food crops produced in the district are rice, cassava, plantain, maize and vegetables. The major tree crops include cocoa, oil palm and citrus.

Sheep, goat, cattle, poultry and grasscutter constitute the livestock produced in the District.

The District falls within the semi – deciduous forest belt with thick forest cover which provides valuable timber for export and saw milling industries in the area. The condition is however gradually changing due to constant lumbering by concessionaries and chain saw operators.

The industrial sector is the least developed of the district’s economy. It is therefore an opportunity for investors to take advantage of the investment potential in agro – processing. What occurs currently in the district are small – scale industries that are predominantly into cassava and oil palm processing. However, the capacity of production does not utilize even 1% of the total raw materials of these produce.

The District falls within the semi – equatorial type of climate. Mean annual rainfall value ranges between 1800mm and 2100mm. Average   temperatures are approximately 29.70C at mid – day and 21.100C at night. Mean temperature is 25.390C.

The District experiences double maximum rainfall regime. The major rains begins in March and end in July with the peak in June. The minor rains start in September and end November. August is relatively dry. A prolonged drought starts from November and ends in February or March.

The area is undulating. Low lying areas rise sharply from 152m to 427m. The land in the District is undulating resulting in the creation of a series of valley bottoms. Most of these valley bottoms are already being used for rice production by many farmers.

The major soil types are forest ochrosols.

Most of the land is stool land which is shared among the clans and families. Settler farmers or strangers acquire land on ‘’abunu’’ or ‘’abusa’’ basis.

Cocoa farming is predominant and occupies the greater portion of the upland arable land.

Food crop farming is done by a large number of farmers on small to mediums scale.

Mechanized farming is non – existent. The use of herbicide to prepare land is picking up among farmers. Shifting cultivations has virtually given way to continuous cropping due to pressure on the land.

OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISTRICT

TYPE OF OCCUPATION ECONOMICALLY ACTIVENUMBER OF PEOPLE %
FarmsAgro base industryCommerceArtisans

Public & Private Employment

77,2732,3152,4123,811

1,833

78.54.85.07.9

3.8

MIGRATION TRENDS

As a predominant farming area, the district is a net receiver of migrants. Annually, a large number of people migrate into the district to do farming. These migrant farmers therefore constitute a large proportion of the population. Available information indicates that the migrants constitute about 45% of the total district population.  Among the migrants, Ewes are in the majority constituting 55% followed by Fantes. Others are Ga Adangbes, Akwapims and Northerners. These migrants are engaged in very productive activities.

SEX COMPOSITION

The district data base gives a male population of 51,810 and female population 46,627. This means that there are more males in the district than females. The males:  females population ratio for the district is 52.6% and 47.4%.

Communication

The district has access to all major mobile telecommunication networks in the country, namely, the MTN, Tigo, Vodafone, Airtel, Expresso and Globacom etc. In addition the district can also boast of vibrant post offices which together with the mobile telecommunication network help make communication very easy thereby reducing cost of doing business in the district.

Banks

There are two commercial banks and two Rural Bank namely, Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB), Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) and Adansi Rural Bank (ARB) and Akrofoum Rural Bank.

Transport

The general transport system is woefully inadequate and is among one of the worse in the country. This is due to poor road network in the district. Almost all the road networks in the district are largely untarred feeder roads with the exception of the main Cape-Coast Bekwai trunk road, which passes through some parts of the District. Some of the roads are rendered unmotorable during the raining season thereby leaving many farm produce in the hinterland to rot . It is not surprising that almost all the vehicles in the district including the official vehicles are always in very deplorable state.

There is no single road that linked the two constituencies in the district. This also makes administration of the district very expensive in the sense that one would have to go through about four different Districts before one could enter into the other constituency of the District to work.

Market

Petty-trading activities go on in almost all the satellite markets in the major communities in the District. However, the District currently, can boast of only New Edubiase market, which is very vibrant to some extent and does trading twice a week namely, Tuesday and Friday. The satellites markets in such areas as Apagya, Atobiase, Praso, Akrofuom, Mensonso Ampunyase, Tonkoase and Amudurase also do trading but on a smaller scale. They therefore do not have any specific day for major trading like what pertains in New Edubiase. However, the District is at the border of a very well established market at Fumso which attracts large patronage from all corners of the country every Thursday. It would interest you to know that many farm produce that are sentd to the market are taken from the Adansi South District Assembly. In view of this, toll barriers have been erected at selected routes in the district where traders cart goods to the market so that toll is issued on various items for revenue.

MAJOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

PRIMARY PRODUCTION:

Agriculture employs about 78.5% ( 56 % male and female 44 %) of the active population who are engaged in the production of various crops such as; cocoa, oil palm, maize, cassava, rice, cocoyam, plantain and vegetables.

There is no clear cut distinction between farmers who produce either cash or food crops. Farmers combine food crops, cash crops and rearing of animals e.g. pigs, small ruminants, cattle, local birds in small scale.

COCOA: Production of cocoa is dominant. It substantially employs greater number of people in the district and thus a determinant in the income distribution in the area.

OIL PALM: Oil palm production is also carried out by most of these farmers and termed as both food and cash crop. Currently a lot of farmers have gone into oil palm production which makes it next to cocoa.

CASSAVA: Cassava is more widely grown and has comparative advantage over the other food crops. It is sold in the raw form or processed into gari or ‘agbelima’ (cassava dough). RTIMP has introduced high yielding varieties (Afisiafi, Bankyehemaa, Abasafitaa, etc) through MOFA

RICE: Rice production is on the increase; the undulating nature of the terrain and numerous valley bottoms has given rise to the production of rice. Currently JICA in collaboration with MOFA are teaching farmers in two (2) communities on sustainable rainfed rice production in the district.

MAIZE: Maize production has potential but not being exploited. Maize is not grown solely as in the northern sector of Ghana and in the transitional zone hence optimum yield is never realized. Farmers in the district still prefer cultivation of local variety to the improved varieties like Obatampa which by far yield far higher than the local variety.

LIVESTOCK: Majority of the total population are into crop production to the detriment of livestock which is poorly patronized. Farmers in the livestock production are also in crop production. They are engaged in small ruminants like sheep and goats, cattle and also pigs.

POULTRY: There are two (2) commercial farmers and these two medium scale farms with a total of about 5,000 birds. The commercial farmers are using deep litter system technology, whilst local birds and ruminants are on the free range.

Low level in livestock production is due to high incidence of disease and pest associated with the rain forest ecology coupled with the fact that there is only one veterinary officer.

FARMING METHODS AND AVERAGE OUTPUT / HECTARE

Crop Current practice Current output (ton/ha) Recommended practice Recommended output (ton/ha)
Cocoa Mono 0.48 tonne Mono 1.562 tonnes
Oil palm Mono 4-8 tons/ha/yr Mono 12-15 tons/ha/yr
Cassava Mixed 2.73 tonnes Mono
Plantain Mixed 1.35 tonnes Mono 2.97 tonnes
Maize Mixed 1.0 Mono 3.0 tonnes
Pepper Mono 7.5 (max bag) Mono 20 (max bag)
Rice Mono 1.05 tonnne Mono 4 tonnes

Major Crops Produced in Details

Maize

Maize is predominantly grown by most of the farmers. It is eaten by almost every household. It employs about 85% of the population. However, they cultivate small areas scattered over the district with an average yield of 2bags per acre or 200kg per acre.

Land preparation: The farmers use rudimentary implements like cutlasses and axes in preparing their land. They slash, fell the trees and chop the branches and allowed to dry. They then burn the thrash. Average area under cultivation per farmer is 0.8acres Planting

Mostly farmers do staggered planting using local variety and dibblers. Only few farmers do row planting using recommended spacing of 40cm×80cm and improved variety like ‘obantapa’; they also dibble.

Weeding

Most farmers usually weed once in the cropping season except those who plant improved variety who usually weed twice.

Fertilizer

Most farmers do not use fertilizer especially those who plant local varieties. Those who plant improved varieties themselves and those supported by demonstration inputs apply fertilizer. They use NPK 15:15:15, 2bags (100kg) per acre and Sulphate of ammonia, 1bag (25kg) per acre.

Harvesting

Most farmers harvest their maize when it is dry. Only few farmers harvest it when it is green for sale. Some farmers plant the maize twice; both major and minor. The major season maize is usually harvested dry and the minor season one is harvested green and sold out.

Storage

Maize is mostly stored in unrecommended cribs. Few farmers store maize after dehusking, shelling and treating before bagging and storing in ventilated rooms.

Sale

Sale is either at green or dry stages. Traders within and outside the district come to buy the maize.

RICE

It is one of the staple food and source of income for our farmers. It employs about one third (1/3) of the population in the district. Out of this (1/3), 70% is male and 30% is female who engage in rice production.

Land preparation

Land preparation involves slashing re growth of the weeds is allowed for about three weeks and sprayed with weedicides mostly round up. An Average of 2acres is cultivated by the farmers.

Planting

It is usually direct sowing (in situ) and staggered. The seeds used are of different varieties namely the local varieties and the perfumed (Jasmin 85)

Weeding

Weeding is by the use of cutlasses.

Fertilizer

Farmers do not apply fertilizer apart from those supported by the demonstration and Block farm inputs.

Bird scaring

Birds are scared by shouting, catapults, shaking of tins loaded with pebbles etc.

Harvesting

Most farmers use knives to cut the panicles only few use cutlasses to cut the Culm (stem) of the plant.

Output: An average yield per acre is 11.9 bags/acre or 999.9kg/acre

Threshing: Threshing is either done in the rice field or in the house. Those farmers who cut the stem with cutlasses usually grow the improved varieties and thresh the rice using boxes in the rice field, while those who plant local varieties thresh in the house by spreading tarpaulin on the ground and beating with a stick.

Winnowing

It is done by shaking the rice in pans using the natural wind to separate the rice from the chaff.

Storage

The rice is bagged and stored either in rooms or at the milling centres.

Milling

Some of the milling machines are outmoded and break the new rice varieties; also the machines cannot separate all the chaff from the polished rice thereby reducing the quality of the rice.

Sale

The price is usually determined by the traders who are mostly women who come from Obuasi, Kumasi, Mankessim, Assin Fosu and Fante Nyankumanse to buy the rice.

Strength

  1. Vast inland valleys for rice production
  2. Availability of streams and rivers e.g. Numia Subin, Aprapom, Pra, Offin etc. for irrigation
  3. Availability of technical officers in some of the rice growing areas.
  4. Availability of mills
  5. Ready market for the polished rice.

Weaknesses

  1. High cost of inputs
  2. High labour cost
  3. High interest rate on credit from financial institutions and neighbours.
  4. Low price of rice
  5. Unreliability of rainfall pattern.
  6. Lack of irrigation facilities.

UNLEASHING THE POWER OF CASSAVA IN AFRICA PROJECT (UPOCA)

Seed farms (2009)

The district established 21.90 acres of seed farms  out of a target of 25.0 acre in both the major and minor seasons of 2009 with improved cassava varieties of Afisiafi, Bankyehemaa and Essambankye. Farmers who established the seed farms were given support to maintain the farms.

TERTIARY FARMS (2009)

The project that supported a total of 1,500 farmers with four (4) bundles of cassava planting material each totaling 6,000 bundles to multiply and expand their farms. The idea was to let as many as possible farmers to access the various varieties of improved cassava to increase their production and income levels.

SEED FARMS (2010)

The district established 1.1 acres of seed farm with Bankyehemaa under the project.

TERTIARY FARMS (2010)

A total of 1,483 farmers were supported with 5,932 bundles of improved cassava planting materials for multiplication and further distribution to other interested farmers. These total numbers of planting materials were coppiced from some of the seed farms established in 2009. The district as at the end of 2010 had planting materials to coppice from farms established in the minor season of 2009 and intended to distribute this material in 2011 major season.

TRAININGS AND STUDY TOURS

Series of trainings were organized by the project for selected MOFA staff and farmers on improved production and processing techniques. Farmers from various processing groups were also mobilised to visit improved processing site at Akrofoum to update their knowledge on processing techniques.

Root and tuber improvement and marketing Programme (RTIMP)

SECONDARY FARMS (2009)

The district established a total of 5.0 acres of secondary farms with support from the project in 2010 major season with improved cassava varieties of Afisiafi and Essambankye. Farmers who established the farms were supported by the project.

TERTIARY FARMS

Planting materials from few secondary farms established in 2008 which were not harvested, were coppiced and distributed to interested farmers for multiplication.

SECONDARY FARMS (2011)

The district has been tasked to establish 10.0 acres of secondary multiplication farms for 2011. Farmers are yet to be identified to establish the farmers.

COCOA DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL ( CODAPEC)

The District has 97 capsid gangs with 7 members in a group comprising 6 gang members and a supervisor. There are also 35 blackpod gangs with 11 members in a group comprising 10 gang members and a supervisor.

Below is the average performance for Capsid and Blackpod programme from 2008 to 2010

CAPSID

Year Hectareage Sprayed No of farms sprayed No of farmers covered
2008 44,352 12,161 12,061
2009 54,961 12,282 12,221
2010 56,631 12,659 12,592

BLACKPOD

Year Hectareage Sprayed No of farms sprayed No of farmers covered
2008 10,843 2,079 2,056
2009 10,854 2,167 2,117
2010 12,363 2,183 2,125

FARMER FIELD SCHOOL PROJECT:  MARCH – December, 2010

Ministry of Food and Agriculture in collaboration with Sustainable Tree Crops Programme (STCP) under International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) trained Cocoa farmers in the Farmer Field School concept.

Four (4) communities namely; Adansi /swedru, Akutreso, Kwadwo Yentumi and Nsata Aboabo, were selected for the Farmer Field School. Farmers who could read and write were selected from each community and trained as a community Facilitators to guide the farmers in their sessional trainings, where two (2) MOFA staff were supervisors.

ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT

  • Cocoa farm selection
  • Land demarcation / measurement
  • Selection of cocoa trees and tagging
  • Ballot box test
  • Nursery establishment and transplanting
  • Mirid control black pod management
  • Improved spraying practices for mirid control
  • Pruning
  • Mistletoe management
  • Stem borer management
  • Weed management
  • Fertilizer application
  • Harvesting, pod storage and breaking
  • Fermentation, drying and storage of beans
  • Child lalour issues in cocoa production
  • Record keeping
  • Estimating the profitability of ICPM, ICPM + Fertilizer and Farmer Practice Plots.

BLOCK FARM – 2010

Adansi South selected rice for the Block Farm Project. The total number of farmers who participated in it was 20; male – 15 and female – 5. The Block Farm Project was established in three (3) communities namely; Tweapease – 13 farmers, New Edubiase – 3 farmers and Krowenchi – 4 farmers. The total inputs supplied were as follows;

  • Seed – 400g
  • Pre – emergent weedicide – 22lit
  • Fertilizer:
  1. N:P:K – 2,000kg
  2. Sulphate of ammonia – 500kg

The total production was 146 bags ie 84kg bags.

COCKEREL PROJECT,  2011

National cockerel programme, Adansi Ssouth @ 31st march,2011
SrlNo. Name of farmer Location No. of stock supplied Culled No. of mortality No. Left
1. Delali Kingsford Amudurase 20 3 17
2. Abena Gyasiwa Boamah New Edubiase 20 4 16
3. Ernestina O. Toku New Edubiase 20 2 18
4. Olivia Arkaah New Edubiase 20 4 16
5. Mercy Antwi Apagya 20 18 2
6. Yaw Agyapong New Edubiase 20 4 16
7. Hayford Fosu New Edubiase 20 4 16
8. Kusi Asante New Edubiase 20 16 4
9. Susana Donkor Praso 20 2 17 1
10. Agnes Addai New Edubiase 20 15 5
11. Solomon Anhwere New Edubiase 20 7 13
12. Naomi Amesewu Wuruyie 20 5 15
13. Simon Buabeng Aworoso 20 Nil nil
14. Samuel Mensa Wuruyie 20 12 8
Total 280 2 111 147

GOVERNMENT FERTILIZER SUBSIDY PROGRAME

Table:  22ND JUNE TO 31ST JULY, 2010

FERTILIZER TYPE STOCK AT BEGINNINGA STOCK RECEIVED WITHIN MONTHB TOTAL STOCK (For The Month)C = (A+B) STOCK SOLD IN THE MONTHD BALANCE AT THE END OF THE MONTHE = (C-D)
UREA 144 0 144 5 139
NPK  15  15  15 52 0 52 0 52
AMMONIA 0 50 50 0 50
TOTAL 196 50 246 5 241

Table:  1ST TO 31ST AUGUST, 2010

FERTILIZER TYPE STOCK AT BEGINNINGA STOCK RECEIVED WITHIN MONTHB TOTAL STOCK (For The Month)C = (A+B) STOCK SOLD IN THE MONTHD BALANCE AT THE END OF THE MONTHE = (C-D)
UREA 139 0 139 0 139
NPK  15  15  15 52 0 52 13 39
AMMONIA 50 0 50 12 38
TOTAL 241 0 241 25 216

Table:  1ST TO 30TH SEPTEMBER, 2010

FERTILIZER TYPE STOCK AT BEGINNINGA STOCK RECEIVED WITHIN MONTHB TOTAL STOCK (For The Month)C = (A+B) STOCK SOLD IN THE MONTHD BALANCE AT THE END OF THE MONTHE = (C-D)
UREA 139 0 139 2 137
NPK  15  15  15 39 0 39 24 15
AMMONIA 38 0 38 38 0
TOTAL 216 0 216 64 152

Table:  1ST TO 31ST OCTOBER, 2010

FERTILIZER TYPE STOCK AT BEGINNINGA STOCK RECEIVED WITHIN MONTHB TOTAL STOCK (For The Month)C = (A+B) STOCK SOLD IN THE MONTHD BALANCE AT THE END OF THE MONTHE = (C-D)
UREA 137 0 137 101 36
NPK  15  15  15 15 0 15 15 0
AMMONIA 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 152 0 152 116 36

Table: 1ST TO 30TH NOVEMBER, 2010

FERTILIZER TYPE STOCK AT BEGINNINGA STOCK RECEIVED WITHIN MONTHB TOTAL STOCK (For The Month)C = (A+B) STOCK SOLD IN THE MONTHD BALANCE AT THE END OF THE MONTHE = (C-D)
UREA 36 0 36 4 32
NPK  15  15  15 0 0 0 0 0
AMMONIA 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 36 0 36 4 32

SUMMARY OF GOVERNMENT FERTILIZER SUBSIDY PROGRAME

FROM 22ND JUNE TO 30TH NOVEMBER, 2010

TYPE OF FERTILIZER QUANTITY  RECEIVED QUANTITY SOLD BALANCE
UREA 144 112 32
NPK 15 15 15 52 52 0
SULPHATE OF AMMONIA 50 50 0
TOTAL 246 214 32

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