The development of a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) is both a way to comply with the triggering of the Involuntary Resettlement policy (OP/BP 4.12) and a requirement for projects that may entail involuntary resettlement, acquisition of land, impact on livelihood, or restricted access to natural resources under the World Bank safeguard policy on involuntary resettlement. The RPF will provide project stakeholders with procedures to address compensation issues as related to affected properties/ livelihoods including land and income generated activities during project implementation.
Brief Description of Project
The Government of Ghana has received an advance on the proceeds of a credit from the International Development Agency (IDA – World Bank Group) to finance the preparation of the Ghana Commercial Agriculture Project (GCAP). The project preparation is under the overall responsibility of Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA). The development objective of GCAP is to improve the investment climate for agri-business and establish inclusive Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) aimed at increasing on-farm productivity and value addition in selected value chains in both the Accra Plains and the Savanna Accelerated Development Authority (SADA) regions. GCAP is a World Bank category A project and a Ghana EPA ESIA –mandatory undertaking. World Bank safeguard policies require that MoFA effectively assesses and mitigates the potential environmental and social impacts of the projects proposed activities.
Description of Project Areas
The project location is within the Savannah Accelerated Development Authority (SADA) Regions and the Accra Plains of Ghana. The SADA Regions comprise Upper East Region, Upper West Region, Northern Region, and northern parts of Brong Ahafo and Volta Regions. The Accra Plains project area extends across mainly 4 districts, i.e., Dangbe West and Dangbe East of Greater Accra Region, North and South Tongu of Volta Region.
Most of settlements in the project area are rural by population and function. The only exceptions to this general classification are Battor and Mepe which are urban by population and function. Aveyime is urban by population but elements of a rural agrarian economy manifest within the spatial configuration, housing characteristics and economic life of the town. Local populace in the project area is made up several ethnic groups. These are Ga-Dangmes, Ewes, Akans, Guan and Mole Dagbani. Ga-Dangme group is the majority of Dangme West and Dangme East District, and Ewe group occupies more than 90% in North Tongu District Land in the project area can be categorized under two tradition ownerships, Stool Lands and Family Lands. Customary land ownership in the form of family lands is the main type of land ownership within the project area.
The main ethnic groups in the project pilot areas include the Dagbani, Mamprusi and Gonja in the Northern Region, Dagaaba and Sisala in the Upper West Region, Builsa, Kassena, Nankani, Grunnie, Nabdam and Kussasi in the Upper East Region. In all these ethnic patrilineal inheritance is the norm and traditional authority is vested in the chief, who sits on a skin, an acknowledged symbol of identity of the group and authority. The majority of people in the three northern regions are traditionally crop and livestock farmers, growing cereals, root and tubers and keeping livestock, mainly goats, cattle and sheep for subsistence and gain. Outside farming season activities include farm produce processing and marketing, livestock grazing and “pastoralling”, bush fire prevention and control and renovations/rehabilitation of residential accommodation. Cattle husbandry plays an important role in the socio-economic life of people of the three regions. In the Upper West and Upper East regions, ownership of land is vested in the Tindanas (Landowners), while in the Gonja area of the Northern Region the land-owning authority are the “skins” or chiefs. In most parts of the SADA regions undeveloped and unoccupied land may be described as communal lands and subject to common rights. These lands need to be allocated by the traditional authority and may be subject to traditional user rights of local communities.
Relevant Legal, Regulatory and Administrative Framework
The legal and institutional framework in Ghana over land administration, land tenure, and land expropriation is complex. The National Land Policy was prepared in 1999, and the on-going Land Administration Project (LAP) seek among other things, to streamline the myriads of laws regulating land administration and/ or establishing mandates for different land administration agencies in the country. Among the numerous land-related laws passed in the last 50 years, the most relevant to GCAP Programme are:
- The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, 1992;
- The Lands Commission Act 2008, Act 767.
- The State Lands Act 1962, Act 125 and Amendments;
- Survey Act 1962, Act 127;
- The Lands (Statutory Wayleaves) Act, 1963;
- Land Title Registration Act 1986, PNDCL 152 and Regulations 1986 LI 1341;
- Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands Act 1994, Act 481; and
The key institutions responsible for administration of lands and or resettlement activities in line with this RPF include:
- The Public and Vested Lands Management Division of the Lands Commission;
- Land Valuation Division of the Lands Commission;
- Land Registration Division of the Lands Commission;
- Survey and Mapping Division of the Lands Commission;
- Environmental Protection Agency;
- The Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies;
- Department of Town & Country Planning; and
- Traditional Authorities e.g., Chiefs.