PHYSICAL AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
LOCATION AND SIZE
Bawku municipality is one of the districts in the Upper East Region of Ghana. It lies between latitudes 11o 111 and 100 401 North and longitude 0o 181w and 0o 61 E in the north-eastern part of the region. It shares boundaries with Burkina Faso to the north, Republic of Togo to the east, Bawku West District to the west and Garu–Tempane District to the south. It has a total land area of about 1,215 .05 sq km2.
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
The municipality is underlain mainly by Birrimian and granite rock formation. The topography alone the basins of the White Volta River and its tributaries is s generally low and slightly undulating with heights of 120-150 metres above sea level. The rest of the municipality consists of a series of plateau surfaces.
The Municipality is drained mainly by the White Volta and its tributaries as well as Kulupielega and the Poanaba Kayinchingo streams. Except in a few areas around the river basin where the drainage becomes poor because of seasonal flooding.
GEOLOGY AND SOIL
Soils in the Municipality are generally of the savanna ochrosol type which are shallow and low in soil fertility. The soils are coarse textured, weak with low organic matter content. Soils in the area ranges from sandy loam, clay loam to silty loam which is associated with hornblende and granites.
Municipality is part of the interior continental climatic zone of the country characterized by one rainy from May/June to September/ October. There is a pronounced long dry season from November to mid February characterized by cold, dry dusty. harmattan winds. The mean annual rainfall of the Municipality is between 800-850mm and average temperatures is (320c – 370c) degrees centigrade.
The natural vegetation is mainly of the Sahel Savanna woodland type characterized by short scattered drought resistance tress and grasses that get burnt by bushfires during the dry season period. Forest reserves in the Municipal include Morago West, Kuka and the White Volta basin which are protected by inhabitants.
About 46 per cent of the population have access to portable drinking water by Ghana Water Company Limited (GWLC). The rest get their water supple through boreholes and hand dug well in the Municipality.
The environment is made up economic trees and water bodies which are scatters all over the area. Some parts of the environment is naturally rocky hills and/or rock outcrops predominating the landscapes as in the north- west and north-east, low lying areas, prone to floods during rainy seasons as in the south west, which incidentally falls within the White Volta River drainage basin. The latter area is also plague by oncho-flies. In addition, the soils are not very fertile as they are marginally suitable for agriculture.
AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION
The estimated total population of Bawku Municipality is 205,849 with a population density of 147 persons per square kilometer. The population of the Municipality constitutes about twenty percent of the Upper East Region’s population.
Refer to the table below for details
Table: The Percentage Age and Sex distribution of the Municipality
|Age group||% of Total population|
20 – 29
30 – 39
40 – 49
The dependency ratios 1: 1:1:25. As shown on the tables above about 55% of the population s outside the working group which constitutes a stress on the working population.
Household sizes un the Municipality are fairly large like it pertains in most parts of the country. According to the 2000 population census report, on the average there are seven persons per household. Though these large households could mean availability of labour, it has some financial implications in terms of feeding, health care, education, clothing etc. The large number of household therefore constitute economic burden.
SEX AND RURAL – URBAN DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION
The population of the Municipality is primarily rural and scattered in dispersed settlement which is about 80 per cent rural and about 20 per cent urban.
Household sizes in the Municipality are fairly large and this has increased the labour force of the households. Though these large households could mean availability of labour, it has some financial implication in terms of feeding, healthcare, education, clothing etc. The large number of household size therefore constitute economic burden. However, Agriculture employs about 65 % of the labour force.
The main occupation of the people in the Municipality is Agriculture which provide about 65% of the labour force. The major crops grown are cereals, Legumes and vegetables.
The average size of a Holden, range between one and two hectares as a result of high population density. Yields are very low as compared to other parts of the country due to poor soils as well as erratic /unreliable rainfall pattern etc.
There are a few dams and dug-outs which are being used for dry season gardening. Farmers also dig into the sand of dry riverbeds to get water. There are also on-going projects for the rehabilitation of dams and construction of new dams under LACOSREP I&II and the Village Infrastructure Projects (VIP).
Cash crops in the municipality are onions, tomatoes and Soyabeans, Tomatoes and Onions are cultivated in the dry season, however, onion is referred to by the residents as the “cocoa of Bawku municipality”.
Under the block programme, the Municipal supported 216 beneficiary farmers comprising of 148 males and 68 female covering an area of 73 ha for both soya and rice in 2010.
Under NRGP, Municipal supported 58 farmers made up of 35males and 23 females with farm inputs to under take maize and soya production.
Total area cropped in hectares, yield in MT/Ha and production in (MT) is summarized in the table below from 2008-2010
Fishing is not a key economic activity in the municipality, even though significant fishing has been recorded along the white-Volta river, and at dam sites on permanent water bodies..
Livestock and poultry rearing is an economic activity for the people of Bawku, and the practice is Mixed farming where majority of farmers cultivating crops also keep some livestock and poultry. Key livestock types include: Livestock, small ruminants Poultry and Piggery
START AND END TIME
There are some NGOs and Bilateral and Multilateral Organizations existing in the Municipality which have their respective areas of operation. The start and ending period of the Projects are as indicated in table 4 below
Table: MOFA Related Projects in Bawku Municipality
|NGO/AGENCY||DATES||NAME/AREA OF OPERATION|
|AGSSIP||2002 – 2009||Agricultural Sub-Sector Investment Project|
|Bawku East Women Development Association BEWDA||On-going||Capacity building, Gender Issues, Income Generation|
|ZOVFA||On-going||Zouri Organic Vegetable Farmers Association|
|UNICEF||2000 – 2009||Education, Water and Sanitation, Health, Children rights and protections|
|RELC||2002 – On-going||Research Extension Linkage Committee|
|EDF||2002 – 2009||Extension Development Fund|
|ADRA||1992 -2009||Adventist Development Relief Agency|
|FBOs||2002 – 2009||Farmer Based Organization|
|LWMP||1996 -2003||Land and Water Management Project|
|IFAD/LACOSREP||1993 – 2004||Irrigation and Social Conservation, Income Generation|
|PMMP||2002 – 2004||Poverty Measurement Monitoring Project (Capacity Building, Data Collection)|
|CARE INTERNATIONAL||2000 – On-going||Capacity Building, Trainings|
|RTIP||199 – 2004||Root and Tuber Improvement Project|
|PAGEV||2006 – On-going|
|TIPCEE||2006 -2009||Trade and Investment Project for Competitive Export|
|FAO||2007- 2009||Food and Agricultural Organization|
These projects have increased the incomes of the rural folks through provision of improved technologies, capacity building and provision of credit facility. This has gone a long way in improving the livelihood of the farmers in the Municipality.
The below shows the number of Programmes been implemented in the Municipality
NAME/AREA OF OPERATION
|NRGP||2009 – On-going||Northern Rural Growth Project|
|Youth In Agriculture||2009 – On-going||Bulk-Farm|
|LDP||2003 – 2010||Livestock Development Programme|
POTENTIALS OF BAWKU MUNICIPAL.
DRY SEASON GARDENING
i. Fertile alluvial soils along the White Volta Basin-onion, watermelon, pepper, maize and leafy vegetables.
ii .Nineteen (19) Dam sites dotted all over the Municipality. However, some are silted and needs rehabilitation.
LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY PRODUCTION
Tropical Savannah, suitable for all types of livestock and poultry production especially Guinea fowl
Large population of hard working, reliable and cooperating farmers
About half the total cultivable land is suitable for sweet potato production.
MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE
Several market centres and outlets strategically located and having links with neibouring Burkina and Togo.
MINISTRY OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
P.O. BOX 43
Tel: 233 20242106511 (Municipal Director)
+233 0244985824 (DDO)
+233 0244431789 (DDO)