The Ketu South District is strategically located between Latitudes 6o00’N and 6o10’N and Longitudes 1o00’E and 1o10’E and serves as the Eastern-Gate-Way to the country.
The border town, Aflao, is less than 10 kilometers from Lome, the capital of the Republic of Togo and less than 200 kilometers from Accra. Ketu South has the highest population density in the Volta Region. The district is noted for its vibrant cross-border trade, production of high quality vegetables from underground fresh water, high quality gari for export and very strong and viable marine fisheries. The district has about 30 kilometers of Lagoon extending from Blekusu to the Keta Lagoon and this provi9des a large opportunity for aquaculture activities and salt mining.
Physical and Natural Environment
Location and Size of Ketu South
The Ketu South District lies at the south – eastern corner of Ghana between Latitudes 6°00’Nand 6°10’N and Longitudes 1°00’E and 1°10’E.. It is bounded in the east with the Republic of Togo, to the west with Keta District, to the north with Ketu North District and to the south by the Atlantic Ocean. The District has a total land size of about 400 sq. km.
Topography and Drainage
Ketu South District is a relatively low land area with altitudes from less than 15 metres at the coast and increasing to 66 metres inland. The coastline is fairly smooth and marked by sandbars. The Drainage of the District is towards the South and is dominated by several seasonal streams. About 30 kilometres of lagoon, extending from the Keta lagoon at Blekusu to the environs of Aflao also exist to provide opportunity for aquaculture activities and salt mining.
Figure: Lagoon stretching from Aflao to Keta
Geology and Soil
The District is underlain by three main geological formations namely the Dahomenyan formation to the North made up of soils such as Tropical Grey and Black Earths, the Regosolic Groundwater Laterites, the Recent Deposits of the littoral consisting of marine sands and the Tertiary formation comprising Savannah Ochrosols for its soil type. These soil types are suitable for the cultivation of different types of crops.
The District experiences the dry Equatorial type of climate. The average monthly temperatures vary between 24℃ and 30℃, which are generally high for plant growth throughout the year. The mean annual rainfall for the District is 850mm at the coast increasing to 1,000mm inland. The rainfall is of double maxima type occurring from April to July and September to October. The dry season, which is dominated by the dry harmattan winds, extends from December to February. Generally, rainfall in the District is considered low and erratic particularly along the coastal strip between Agbozume and Aflao during the minor season.
The original vegetation of the District is Coastal Savannah woodland made up of short grassland with small clumps of bush and trees found mainly in the Northern parts of the District. To the South are coastal scrub, grassland and mangrove forests in the marshlands. The locally known trees are Agorti, Adzido, Atortsi and Atsitotsi. Another well-known plant is the Ketsi, which is used in making mats, hats and local basket known as Kevi. Along the seashore, the plant cover does not form a continuous carpet but is dotted with herbaceous, erect or creeping plants.
However, the extensive farming activities in the District have, over the years, reduced the natural vegetation. Amid these are cultivated holdings of cassava, maize, coconut, “Atsitoe”, occasional baobab and fan palm. The decimation of the vegetation by population pressure may have adversely affected rainfall in the district.
Condition of Natural Environment
The land suffers from many human activities, which degrade the environment. These activities include uncontrolled sand winning which is carried out particularly in Aflao, Somey Fugo and Wego sub-districts.
Furthermore, annual bush fires occur especially between November and April. Another negative activity is the unbridled felling of trees for fuel, wood and other purposes. In view of the high incidence of tree felling, the Forest Services Division has established a range at Denu. The range has a total holding capacity of about 120,000 seedlings. The Service is also supporting the establishment of tree nurseries, woodlots and tree planting by individuals and communities. The District has also established a total of 40ha of wood lots all over the District.
Condition of Built Environment
Most of the physical structures are unplanned in the district due to inadequate planning layouts to guide construction particularly in the urban centres. The Town and Country Planning Department is drafting the layout for the Tokor and Aflao Urban awaiting presentation to the stakeholders before its implementation starts.
The major classes of land use in the District include settlements, agriculture, infrastructure networks, wetlands, beaches and open waters. The few urban centres have other land uses like commerce, industry. Land management practices are generally very poor.
In relation to the built up environment, the main problem is with waste management. In this regard, two areas have been identified to be of interest to the environmental situation in the district. These are Liquid waste and solid waste management.
- Liquid waste
It is noted that about 40 percent of the settlements in the District have no access to toilet facilities. A lot more of the settlements rely on traditional pit and pan latrines. The Assembly is still phasing out the pan and pit latrines. There are 40 public toilets in the urban centers. These are however under very high user pressure. There are however, a few household and institutional toilet facilities. The District has one cesspit emptier for dislodging human excreta. Unfortunately, there is no final disposal site for depositing waste. This delays the dislodging of human excreta in public toilets especially. As a result most private homes dig holes behind their houses and dump the wastes in them. This continuous to spread disease infection and hence lost of man hour for economic development.
- Solid waste
Most settlements in the District are without organized refuse disposal sites. Domestic rubbish (solid waste) is disposed of in nearby farms or in bushes surrounding residential houses. Others also bury wastes in the ground. The District has only 2 refuse trucks one of which belongs to the Zoom Lion Company Ltd.
The major sources of water in the District are wells, pipe borne, bore hole, rain water, streams and rivers. The rural communities depend on rain water, wells and streams. Those in the urban areas depend on water supplied by the Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) and the rural water by the Volta Region Community Water and Sanitation Program (VRCWSP). The GWCL operates in Denu, Aflao and Agbozume. There are two 100m³-capacity reservoirs at Denu and Aflao.
At Agbozume the system is made up of one borehole with electro submersible pump with rising mains, a distribution network made up of UPVC and AC mains of 100mm diameter and 50m3 capacity reservoirs. The total distance of the distribution network in the township is about 6 kilometers.
The Volta Region Community Water and Sanitation Program had constructed over 60 boreholes which are serving some rural communities.
In all, there are about 100 boreholes, 1,304 pipe stands, 2 dams, 1,242 hands dug wells, 200 water harvesting systems, 2 hand pumps in the District which provide water. Many people in the District lack potable water supply.
Ketu South District continues to grow at a rate of 2.0 percent annually. The 2000 Population and Housing Census recorded a total population of 155,781 with females dominating by 52.7 percent. With the growth rate of 2.0 percent, the population is projected to increase to 190,271 by the December 2010. The high population growth in the District is largely attributed to the influx of immigrants mainly from the nearby countries: Togo, Benin, Nigeria and Niger who engage in commercial activities in the District. The population according to the five administrative sub-districts in the District is shown in table 1.
Population by Urban Council
|SN||NAME OF AREA/ URBAN COUNCIL||TOTAL||2010|
Source: District Statistical Unit, 2010
Age and Sex Distribution of the Population
Age and sex composition of a population serves as a useful guide to demographic trends and development decision making. The age structure can be grouped into three broad categories. These are 0-14 (dependants), 15-64 (active working population) and 65 years and above (dependants).
According to the 2000 population and housing census, the total population of people in the 0-14 age cohorts is 64,094 representing a total 41.2 percent of the total population. The population of the people within the 15-64 age cohorts is 80,459 also representing 51.6 percent. Meanwhile the aged form a total of 11,228 which is approximately 7.2 percent. Comparatively, the total number of dependants (0-14 and 65+) is lower than the number of the economically active population. However, the dependency ratio is 1:1 meaning that one economically active person will look after one dependant.
Broad Age Distribution
Source: District Statistical Unit, 2010
Sex and Rural-Urban Distribution of the Population
Ketu South District is female dominated as about 52.7 percent of the total population is females. This has a potential of a high increase in population in the future.
The District also shows a high level of rural communities as over 65.2 percent of the population lives in the rural areas. There is therefore the need for more vigorous rural development projects to be undertaken in order to alleviate the plight of the rural poor and avoid possible rural-urban migration and its attendant problems.
Sex distribution and rural-urban distribution of the population
|Total||Share Of R/POP||Sex ratio||Male||Female||Rural||Urban|
Source: District Statistical Unit, 2010
Society is very dynamic. The population of the people being planned for changes and so it affects the future the development of the area and the people. Based on the growth rate of the Ketu South District, the population was projected using the exponential method. This is meant to ascertain the future needs and aspirations of the people viz-a-viz the total number of the people.
Projected Population of Ketu South (2010-2014)
Source: District Statistical Unit, 2010
The District labour force is mostly made of people within the ages of 15 to 64. According to the 2000 population census about 80,459 also representing 51.6 percent forms the labour force of the District. However, due to economic hardships on majority of the people in the District, minors (those between ages 10-14) are engaged in serious economic activities such as farming, truck pushing, fishing, and other commercial activities such as trading. Statistics available revealed that there are about 460 registered child labourers identified in the following communities in the District: Blekusu-Anyiehe (Mina), Agavedzi, Adina, Amutimu, Tetekope-Adafienu and Blekusu-Dziehe. The children are engaged in fishing and vegetable farming in these communities. However, 200 out of the 460 are withdrawn through the ILO/IPEC programme, which sought to prevent the incidence of child labour in the West African Sub-Region.
The Agricultural sector is the single most important economic sector in the Ketu district, employing over 53% of the labour force. Agricultural activities are differentiated into three main sub-sectors.
The Crop Sub-sector accounts for about 60% per cent of agricultural activities in the district. The crops in the sub-sector can be categorized as arable crops, plantation crops and vegetables.
The major arable crops grown in the district are maize, cassava, cowpea and sweet potatoes.
Maize and cassava are virtually grown at every part of the district except along coast. The mode land size holding for maize and cassava fall within one to two hectares (1-2 ha.) range.
About 40 percent and 95 percent of the farmers grow the local variety of maize and cassava respectively.
There are several local varieties of cassava in the district. This is as a result of the cross border inter-phasing with farmers from the Republic of Togo. Penyivi, Bazooka, Hushivi, Dogbevi, Busumsia and Biafra are some of the local varieties. These varieties are good for the production of cassava dough, gari and Agbozume biscuit. Currently there is only one improved seed maize producer in the district.
Obatampa and Abelehi are some of the improved maize varieties cultivated by farmers.
However, there are some local varieties namely, Gbowunefa, Ablivi and Aditsibli amongst others.
The cassava and maize are cropped in the maize-cassava inter-crop system. The current yield of maize is 1.3 tons/ha and that of cassava is 9.4 tons/ha (2005). 182,722.0 metric tons of cassava and 29.833.41 metric tons of maize were produced in 2009. Refer to table 8 for more details.
Coconut is the largest plantation crop grown in the district. Large contiguous plantations are evident all along the coast. Isolated smaller units down to few trees around compounds are also seen in the hinterland.
There are mixtures of varieties grown all over. There are no sources of improved seed garden for farmers to procure true-to-type seeds or seedlings for cultivation. Farmers therefore depend on their trees from their seed source. The result is poor performance of the generations. There had not been any conspicuous pest and disease situations of coconut in the district.
Aside weed control until the canopy closes no other management practices are undertaken with the cultivation of coconut. The coconut fruits are either harvested fresh for eating or as copra for the processing into oil.
Mango production for export is an emerging enterprise. Currently, land holding ranges from 2.0 hectares to 40.0 hectares. However, contiguous plot of land over 40.0 hectares is hard to come by. The two distinct productions seasons per year make South Eastern Ghana a good destination for mango production.
Urban Vegetable Productions
Though there is a general vegetable production throughout the district as a way of life, the actual vegetable production as a business, which is known as Urban Gardening, is concentrated along the coastline. The traditional areas covered include Aflao, Awakorme, Viepe, Denu, Hedzranawo, Adafienu, Wokadedzi, Tetekope and Agorko. Currently the urban gardening is expanding to Nogokpo and Agbozume areas.
The land tenure amongst is mainly leasehold and the land rent ranges from GHC20.00 – GHC50.00 per acre per annum.
The vegetables produced are onion, chilies, okro, tomatoes, carrot and leafy vegetables (Gboma).
The urban gardening business is an all-year-round activity with water obtained from shallow tube wells mechanized by electrically operated water-pumping machines.
The cropping calendar is Onion (May-September) Chilies (September-May), Tomato (June-November) Okro, Carrot and Leafy Vegetables – all year round. The various vegetables are cropped in pure stands.
Organic fertilizers (Poultry manure and Cow dung) are mainly used. However, some amount of Sulphate of Ammonia top dressing is made including Micronutrients. Occasionally NPK and urea are applied.
Pests and disease control are mainly by use of inorganic pesticides with some few using biological pesticides.
An urban garden in Aflao- onion production under sprinkler irrigation
Urban gardening is a labour intensive business using labour at all phases of production.
The enterprise employs about three thousand people. Out of this number about six hundred (600) people are farm owners out of which women form about 20% percent. The rest of the number, form the labour force of which 105 (percent) are the permanent labour.
The target market for the chili is the European market, whilst the Onion and Tomatoes are for the domestic market, Togo, Benin and Nigeria.
The leafy vegetables and carrot are mainly for the domestic and the Togo Markets.
Rain-fed Vegetable Production
Purely commercial rain fed vegetable production is carried out at Dordokope, Tsiforleme near Nogokpo and Akame. Here, they mainly cultivate okro, pepper and tomatoes.
Livestock production forms an integral part of Agricultural production in the Ketu District. Livestock and Poultry are a source of food, income, recreation and also an important element in the socio-cultural context. They are also a means of storing wealth in times agricultural plenty and provide cash reserves for emergencies and guarantees of food security in times of crop failures. The main types reared in the district include cattle, sheep and goats, pig poultry and quite recently,
These are mainly the West African breeds, e.g. Sanga. They are kept mostly in Nogokpo.
Sheep and Goats
They form the majority of livestock reared in the district. Almost every crop farmer owns some form of livestock and or poultry. However, concentrations are at Glitame, Agbozume and Dodorkope
The main system of production is the traditional backyard system of mixed sheep and goats. There are two main types of this being operated:-
(a)The Village flock system under which animals belonging to small scale farmers are generally left to their own devices. Supplements like household wastes are given when available. Health case is minimal in this case.
(b) Pen – urban flocks/herds are generally confined in backyards for most of the time and allowed out for grazing for only a few hours in the day. When feed supplementation is inadequate nutritionals deficiencies do occur under this semi-intensive system. The two main breeds are the West African Dwarf and the Dyalonko.
The African swine fever has reduced the number of pigs in the district drastically. A few however, remain at Aflao, Dzodze and Agbozume. The main breed is the Large White and the Ashanti Black. The latter found mainly in Aflao and Akame is left to scavenge whereas the former is normally housed and fed.
Even though few numbers of these can be found in almost every household, still there are commercial farmers as well who keep them in quite great quantities for both meat and eggs production. The commercial poultry (exotic breeds) in concentrated at Aflao, Denu. Laklevikorpe
The main breed consists of the local 288. Starbro, russel 566 and 579.
The production of grass cutter started few years now in the district and it is one major project or enterprise earmarked by the District Assembly towards development to provide job opportunities or means of employment for many people. Grasscutter production is scattered all over the district but producing areas include Aflao, Hatsukope and Agbozume.
Towards the development of the sub-sector as a whole, the directorate has put certain mechanisms in place so far as agricultural extension services delivery is concerned
Measures such as range over sowing demonstration fodder bank establishment, purchase of improved sires to upgrade local stocks and education of farmers on general good husbandry practices are among the numerous efforts put in place by the District Directorate.
The coast stretch of the district extends from Blekusu on the East to Aflao on the West. Marine fishing is intensive from Blekusu to Adafienu, where livelihood is dependant on fishing.
- The beach seine
- The purse seine nets (Watsa).
There are Two hundred and four (204) canoes in the district. Out of this, One Hundred and Fifty-five (155) are used for beach seine fishing and Forty-nine (49) for Watsa. (Source: Canoe Frame Survey, 2004).Based on the assumption that on the average, Forty-five (45) Fishermen work on beach seine canoe, there are about Seven Thousand Eight Hundred and Eighty-two (7,882) Fishermen in the district. Pelagic fish species such as Anchovy and Sardine are caught throughout the year with the peak season from August to October.
Other fishing gears in use but on a very small scale are Drift Gill Net and Hook and Line.
|Type of Net||2000 (Mt)||2001 Mt )||2002(Mt)||2003|
Source: Marine Fisheries research Division (MFRD) Tema
The Ministry of Food and Agriculture in collaboration with seven communities (Blekusu, Agavedzi, Amustinu, Adina, Adafienu, Denu and Aflao) along the coast has put in place the Community based Fisheries management Communities (CBFMC) to co-manage the fisheries resources.
The flood plains from Aflao to Blekusu serve as fishing spots when the rains come.
Mostly women operate fish processing in the Ketu District. Chorkor Smoker; this industry has grown even faster than anticipated producing better quality-smoked fish. The constraints been faced by the stakeholders in this enterprise is the inadequacy of firewood which is used as fuel for the smoking of fish. Solar energy is being exploited on clayey patios for the drying of anchovies.
Fish processed in the district serve neighbouring Togo and other Sahelian countries.
Credit Facilities to Fish Processors
In the immediate past (up to2006) there were three main schemes supporting fish processors in the district.
- Small Scale Credit, Input and Marketing Project: Two Hundred and Twenty-three thousand Ghana Cedis (GHC223, 000.) was disbursed to seven groups with a total membership of Seventy-five (75) All the beneficiaries are women.
- Village Infrastructure Project: Seventy-two (72) women benefited from a One Hundred and Nine, Thousand Ghana Cedis (GHC109,000.00) package.
- Agricultural Development Bank Loan: A total of One hundred and Sixty-four thousand, Five Hundred Ghana Cedis (GHC164, 500.00) was disbursed to Forty-Seven (47) women in three groups.
PROJECTS ON-GOING IN THE KETU SOUTH DISTRICT
DEVELOPMENT PARTNER ASSISTED PROJECTS
There are Four (4) on-going Development Partner Assisted projects in the district.
(i) Millennium Challenge Account (MCA)
(ii) Export Marketing Quality Awareness Project (EMQAP)
(iii) Market-Oriented Agricultural Programme (MOAP).
(iv) Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme (RTIMP).
Millennium Challenge Account
The programme is a United States of America funded programme from the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) to support an Agricultural Transformation programme in Thirty (30) districts in Ghana that grow high value crops. This is a five year programme (2007-2012).
The Millennium Challenge Account has three components:-
(i) Agriculture Project
(ii) Transportation Project
(iii) Rural Development Project
A billboard announcing the presence of the MCA in the district
Under the Agriculture Project, the Ketu South District Agricultural Unit (DADU) primed and handed over Fifteen (15) Farmer Based Organisations (FBOs) comprising 35 smaller groups, made up of 770 members (530 males, 240 females) to Millennium Development Authority. Out of this figure, Eleven (11) Farmer Based Organisations have had their members (585) trained and received inputs for one acre of maize as grant (starter packs).
However, each beneficiary is to contribute the cost of one bag of maize to the group’s account to assist the group to develop.
Distribution of “starter packs” inputs
Business plans have also been developed for each FBO for its members to access loans from the banks. So far only one FBO, Mawunyo Vegetable Farmers’ Group, Denu has accessed the credit component from the bank under the MCA programme.
Other FBOs are also in the process of accessing the loan
An MCA- assisted maize farm (Starter pack) in Lotakor
Under the Rural Development Project, three (3) schools are to be rehabilitated in the district. The beneficiary communities are Aflao, Agbozume and Gamadzra.
Under the Transportation Project, no roads have been identified in the Ketu South District. This is because at the time of the identification, Ketu North and South were operating as one district, Ketu, and all the priority roads fell in Ketu North
Export Marketing and Quality Awareness Project (EMQAP)
This is an African Development Bank funded project to enhance access of horticultural crops into premium export markets.
In the year 2010, Ketu South is to train 240 farmers in horticultural and cassava production in six (6) training sessions and organize 2 field days by the end of December.
Training in pruning under EMQAP in Klehorme
As at the end of August, Ninety (90) pepper farmers have been trained in production technologies and Fifty-five (55) farmers benefited from study tours to Bird’s Eye chili production project outside the district.
Training in pruning under EMQAP in Klehorme
Market-Oriented Agricultural Programme (MOAP)
MOAP is a German Development Cooperation (GTZ) assisted programme and is to roll out till 2013. It was introduced into the District in 2010. The programme’s objective is to strengthen the agricultural sector’s competitiveness on domestic and foreign markets by capitalizing on the country’s agricultural potential to generate significant income for the rural population. The programme has three (3) components:-
(i) Promotion of selected value chains
(ii) Support to public sector services
(iii) Support to private sector organizations.
In the Ketu South, MOAP is developing a Pepper Value Chain. A two-day workshop was jointly organized by MOAP for Ketu South and Keta farmers on Pepper value chain and an interim Value Chain Implementation Team has been put in place in each of the two districts.
Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme (RTIMP)
The RTIMP is being funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Government of Ghana (GoG).
The main objective of RTIMP is to enhance income and food security to improve the livelihood of the rural poor and to build a market-based system to ensure profitability at all levels of the value chain.
In 2009, the RTIMP targeted supplying 1,800 tertiary farmers with improved cassava planting materials. As at June, 2010, a total of 986 tertiary farmers have been reached. This is as a result of the long distance between the secondary planting material multiplication sites and the district.
PURELY GHANA GOVERNMENT FUNDED PROJECTS
The Block Farm is operational in Ketu South in 2010. Under the Block Farm, government provides ploughing services and supply inputs to the farmer who pays back at the end of the season. The farmer can also sell his produce to the government if he chooses. Three active groups have started this major season.
(i) The Truth Farmers Association at Kpoglu with 31 members (29 males, 2 females)
(ii) Amedzikope Dzigbordi farmers Association at Amedzikope with 18 members
(17 males, 1 female).
(iii) Tublukope Youth Farmers Group at Tublukope with 18 members
(13 males, 5 females)
The three groups altogether cultivated 32 hectares of maize.
Drought is the greatest challenge faced by the farmers this major season (March-July)
STRENGTHS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
(i) Available arable land
(ii) 10 No. dams and reservoirs
(iii) Sea for fishing
(iv) High water table for irrigation purposes
(v) Private tractor owners
(vi) Competent and committed staff
(vii) Experienced farmers and fishermen
(viii) Large low-lying areas for fish pond construction, rice and sugarcane production
(ix) Ready market
(x) Strategic position-proximity to Lome and Accra
(xi) Good network of access road
(xii) Availability of electricity in almost all areas
(xiii) Good communication system
(xiv) Availability of Financial Institutions
(xv) Abundant sunshine for processing.
(i) Agricultural Training Institution
(ii) Management Training Institution
(iii) Regional Agricultural development Unit’s support for backstopping
(iv) Availability of Research Institution
(v) Support from the District Assembly
(vi) Availability of NGOs in Agriculture
(vii) Donor support for Agricultural Sector (AgSSIP, RTIP, Food Crops Project, PSI for cassava and oil palm)
(viii) Availability of vegetable export agencies
(ix) Central Government funding for Agriculture
(x) Existence of Ghana Irrigation Authority
(xii) Internet services
(xiii) Interest of Government in Agriculture
Estimated Population of Livestock
Crop Production Figures 2005 – 2009
|CROP||No. of Farmers||Area Under Cultivation (Ha)||Yield (ton/ha)||Estimated Production (Mt)||No. of Farmers||Area Under Cultivation (Ha)||Yield (ton/ha)||Estimated Production (Mt)||No. of Farmers||Area Under Cultivation (Ha)||Yield (ton/ha)||Estimated Production (Mt)||No. of Farmers||Area Under Cultivation (Ha)||Yield (ton/ha)||Estimated Production (Mt)||No. of Farmers||Area Under Cultivation (Ha)||Yield (ton/ha)||Estimated Production (Mt)|