Nkwanta South is one of the eighteen districts in the Volta Region. The Nkwanta South came into being with the division of the former Nkwanta district into the South and North in 2009.
The former was curved from the Kete-Krachi District in 1989. The district capital is Nkwanta
The major towns in the district are loaded to the natural Electricity Grid.
It is hoped the rural Electrification program will soon reach all the other communities.
The climate is characterized by bimodal rainfall pattern to the south and uni-modal to to the north. The three vegetation zones found in the district namely Semi-deciduos forest (45%), Transitional (25%) and Savannah grassland (30%) coupled with the two types of soil (Savannah- Ochrosols and Forest Ochrosols with Oxysol) present area with large variety of crops .
Tree crops such as Cocoa, Citrus Oil-palms, Kola, plantain, cashew and banana. Roots and tubers – cassava, yam and cocoyam. The cereals are cowpea and sorghum. The district characterized by low population density and has vast tracks of land for agricultural activities. Land are highly accessible from the local chiefs and family elders. The many rivers and streams that drained the area bring many small valley bottoms and river basins which offer opportunities for irrigation and large crop production, fishing and livestock production.
Processing or adding value to agricultural produce like cassava, yam oil-palms, cashew are venture that present more prospects in the district.
LOCATION AND SIZE:
Nkwanta South District is located in the North Eastern section of the Volta Region. Its position is latitude 7 300 and 8 450 north ,longitude 0 450 east It shares common boundaries with Krachi East District in the West, the Republic of Togo in the East, the Kadjebi District in the South and the Nkwanta North of the Volta Region in the North.
The District has a total Land Surface area of 3,026.6km2. The total agricultural land area is about 2106km2. It is estimated that in 2009 about 35,260.2 Ha of this area was put under cultivation to the major crops.
Generally, Nkwanta South District is characterized by a double maxima of rainfall, April – June as major season and August – October as minor season. Rainfall is heaviest in August with an average of 350mm each year.
RAINFALL FIGURES FOR 2000 – 2010
|Year||Amount of rain (mm)||No. of wet days|
The average number of rain days is 68.27 per annum with annual rainfall ranging between 883.8mm and 1,676mm. The dry season spans over November to March.
Mean annual temperature ranges between 24oC and 39oC while the minimum temperature is between 11oC and 26oC. January to March is the hottest months and December with the lowest temperature of about 10oC.
There are three (3) vegetation zones. These are:
This is found mainly on the South-Eastern border of the district along the Buem-Togo ranges ie Dadiase, Keri, Kromase and Shiare. Some forests are also located towards the southern border with the Kadjebi District, thus Obanda, Abubruwa, Pusupu and Bontibor, and the west at Tutukpene. The Semi-Deciduous Forests account for about 45% of the total land area.
This embraces the areas from the fringes of the Semi-Deciduous Forests South wards to the central portion of the district involving towns like Nkwanta (the district capital), Krontang, Abrewankor and Kabiti accounting for about 25% of the total land area.
This extends from the central portion about 32km towards the North part of the district, the border with the Nkwanta North District ie Bonakye and New Agou. This zone also occupies about 30% of the total land area of the district.
There are two (2) main relief zones in the District. These are; the mountainous southern portion lying along the eastern border with the Republic of Togo to form part of the Akwapim/Volta-Togo range. This section is marked by the Kyabobo Mountain, 884meters near Chillinga and the Kelebo mountains, 738 meters south of Brewaniase. This zone has steep slopes.
The second relief zone is a flat and low-lying belt occupying almost 2/3 of the District land area. This zone stretches from the Savannah woodland of the northern part of the District to the forest zone of the southern part. It varies in height from 100 to 200 metres above sea level.
The first groups of soils are the Savannah Ochrosols, Savannah Ochrosol- Ground Weather and the Laterite Integrates, found in the savannah woodland zone. These groups of soils support crops such as yams, cassava, maize, groundnut, cowpea and sorghum.
The second groups of soils are the Forest Ochrosols and Oxysols found in the forest zone. These soils have greater accumulation of organic matter and support the cultivation of crops such as cocoa, citrus, oil palm, plantain, cocoyam, ginger and black pepper
The District is drained by some rivers and streams such as Bonakye, Sabon, Kabiti, Kue, Chai. These rivers take their sources from Beue-Togo ranges on the eastern boarder of the district and flow southwesterly direction into the Oti river which covers about 1% of the surface of the district. Rivers Kabiti and Chai can be used for irrigation without damming as they contain large volumes of water running throughout the year. However rivers Bonakye, Sabon and Labon need to be dammed before they can be used for reliable irrigation as they sometimes dry up.
The 2000 population census put the District population to be 88,200 with a growth rate of 4.4%, compared to 1.8% and 2.5% for the Region and country respectively. The population density is 31 people /km2 and over 74% of the people live in the most rural areas in scattered settlements. According to the 2000 housing census, only one settlement Nkwanta (District Capital) has population over 5000.
The ethnic composition of the District is quite diverse. The indigenous ethnic groups are the Ntrubos, the Adele, the Atwodes and the Challas. There are other settler ethnic groups. These included the Konkonbas, Bassares, the Ewes, Akans and the Kotokolis.
Akan is the language widely spoken throughout the district.
Land tenure system is prevalent in the district are leasing and share cropping. Land can easily be acquired for agricultural purposes both short and long terms through the chiefs and elders of the various ethnic groups and stools.
Agriculture is the main economic activity in the District engaging about 90% of the people. Crop farming, Livestock and inland fishing are the main sectors. It is estimated that 75% of the farmers practice shifting cultivation, 24% Bush fallow, 1% Agro forestry; and 60% of farms are mixed crops with another 60% mixed farming. The average farm size is about 2 acres.
Due to the different vegetation types found in the district, various crops are grown. These range from tree crops to roots and tubers, cereals, legumes, vegetables etc. Crop cultivated and their approximate acreages and yields as at 2008, are presented in the table below
|Crops||Area under cultivation in Ha||Yield: Ton/Ha||Total productions|
|African yam bean||–||–||–|
Crop production areas
|Crops||Major areas of production|
|Cassava||Throughout the district but less in extreme North|
|Yam||Throughout the district but less along the eastern and southern borders|
|Maize||Throughout the district|
|Rice||Brewaniase, Bonakye, Kabiti, Tutukpene, Nkwanta, Odumase and Kue|
|Cowpea||Keri, Kue, Bonakye, Tutukpene, Alloskpatsa and Ofosu|
|Groundnut||Brewaniase, Bonakye, Tutukpene, Allokpatsa, Agou and Ofosu|
|Oil palm||Abubruwa, Pusupu, Bontibor, Chaiso, Odumase and Kechiebi|
|Plantain/Banana||Obanda, Abubruwa, Pusupu, Bontibor, Chaiso, Dadiase, Shiare, Chillinga|
|Cocoyam||Obanda, Pusupu, Bontibor, Chaiso Odumase, Dadiase, Kechiebi, Shiare, Chillinga.|
|Citrus||Abubruwa, Pusupu, Bontibor, Chaiso, Odumase, Kechiebi, Shiare.|
|Cocoa||Abubruwa, Obanda, Akyem, Kecheibi, Brewaniase, Salifu, Bontibor and Odumase|
|Cola||Abubruwa, Pusupu, Bontibor, Chaiso, and Kecheibi|
|Avocado||Abubruwa, Obanda, Akyem and Pusupu|
|Cashew||Krontang, , Daiase, Nkwanta, Keri, Odomi, Allokpatsa, Kecheibi, Bonakye and Agou.|
|Sorghum||Bonakye, Kecheibi, Alokpatse, Ofosu|
|Eguzie||Bonakye, Kpassa, Abrewankor, Keri and Kabiti|
|African yam bean||Pusupu, Nkwanta.|
|Pineapple||Salifu, Abubruwa, Obanda, Kecheibi and Kromase|
Most farmers in the District are small holders and about 90% of them still use simple tools like hoes and cutlasses for cropping. The major crops (yam and cassava) are generally cultivated on mounds. Cereals are mostly by zero tillage.
The use of agro-chemicals is now on the increase for weed control and others. Also most farmers depend on family labour and traditional ways of storing their produce. Post-harvest losses are very significant. Agro processing in the District is limited to gari processing which occupies about 70% of the women folk.
Oil palm cultivation is now on large scale in the district. A foreign company (Herackeles) has acquired 5,000ha of land in Brewaniase and currently establishing plantations to produce palm oil for industrial purposes.
Shea nut is also found in the savanna areas. However, only a few nuts are usually picked by the women and the rest left to rot.
Livestock farming is the next prominent after food crops in the District. Cattle, sheep, goats and pigs (both local and exotic) can be found. The small ruminants (sheep, goats) can be found all over the District. Large herds of cattle are particularly reared in the western and northern part of the District. Local pigs are also found to the north with local poultry all over the District.
Exotic poultry and pigs are mostly limited to the urban areas, especially Nkwanta.
Livestock Population-December 2009
|Species||INDIGENOUS||EXOTIC||TOTAL||Major/ potential Areas of production|
|Cattle||4,696||Kabiti, Bonakye, Ofosu, Ashiabre|
|Sheep||10,667||Bonakye, Kabiti, Salifu, Obanda, Nkwanta, Kecheibi|
|Goats||31,212||Bonakye, Kabiti, Nkwanta, Keri, Pusupu, Kechiei|
|Pigs||3,837||807||4,644||Nkwanta, Bonakye and Ofosu|
|Poultry||82,218||4,956||87,174||Local breeds all over the district. Exotic breeds at Nkwanta and Brewaniase|
|G/fowls||8,722||Kechiebi, Ofosu, Bonakye & Agou|
|Ducks||6,913||Nkwanta, Bonakye, Tutukpene & Brewaniase|
|Turkey||1,069||Nkwanta, Bonakye, Keri, Pusupu|
|Pigeon||1,287||Bonakye, Brewaniase & Abrewankor|
Animal Husbandry practices in the District are very low; with most being small ruminants, local pigs and poultry on the free range. Average herd of small ruminants per household is five (5) animals and cattle twenty (20) per kraal or a compound. Dairy milk collection is very limited and meat sold by butchers is unprocessed:-
Aquaculture is not prominent in the District in spite of existing potentials. However Inland fishing is wide spread along the Oti arm of the Volta Lake. Types of fish species often landed include:-
• Alestes bavemoze
• Auchenoglanis occidentalis
• Bagrus bajad
• Brycinus nurse
• Chromidotilapia guentheri
• Hemichromis bimaculatus
• Clavis anguillaris
They are sold in the local markets mostly smoked or salted. Community Based Fisheries, Management Committee exist in the main fishing communities; these include – Kabiti, and “B” Zongo.
The District is an important producer of Food Crops and Livestock in the Region and as a result a number of market settlements have developed where vigorous trading takes place. These markets offer producers locations to meet buyers and also give them the opportunity to buy agricultural inputs. Below is a table of some important markets with distribution.
Local Market Days
Communities cart produce by trucks or by head pottage to these centres. Most of the leading produce like yams, gari and maize attract middlemen from outside the District. They buy both from these markets and the farm gate and cart them in big trucks to urban areas all over the country. Even sometimes to the neighbouring countries. On the average, 88 metric tons (800 bags of 100kg each) of gari is transported out of the district every week to other parts of the country (Accra, Mankesim, Cape Coast, Tamale Bolgatanga and Bawku) and outside to Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali.
Also, 700 bags (one hundred and forty footer container) of yellow gari was bought from two (2) communities (Odumasi and Chaiso) and exported to the Netherlands in 2009.
The financial Institutions in the District include:
• The Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB)
• The Agricultural Development Bank (ADB)
• The North Volta Rural Bank (NVRB)
• Also the following institutions:
• Women and Development, NGO
• The Catholic Dioceses of Jasikans Financial Unit (WADEP-MFI)
• Association of Productive Entrepreneurs in Development (APED) an affiliate to the World Vision International
Provide microfinance services to most petty traders and artisans as well as farmers.
The Nkwanta District Teachers Credit Union of the CUA is a source of credit to some salary workers who also engage in agriculture activities.
The District is benefited from projects being implemented by various National Directorates of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture as well as some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
These special projects include
a) Cashew Development Project (CDP)-2003-2010
b) Livestock Development Project (LDP)-2003-2010
c) Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Project (RTIMP)-ongoing
d) Mass Cocoa Spraying Exercise-ongoing
e) World Vision International collaboration projects-ongoing
f) Wildlife Division Kyabobo National Park Development Project-ongoing
g) Women and Development Projects-ongoing
h) Small ruminant/Animal traction project (Nkwanta Livestock Station)-ongoing
i) African Cashew Initiative, GIZ-ongoing
Cashew Development Project (CDP)
The CDP seeks to increase the income levels of at least 3,000 small-scale farmers, including tree nursery operators and processors. The project objectives are:-
• To increase cashew nut production
• To increase village level processing of cashew fruits and nuts
• To improve income levels/reduce poverty
The project components include: Plantation Development, Extension and Training, Credit and Project Management.
Under the CDP, 177ha of cashew plantations were established. These plantations were also intercropped with food crops such as; maize, yam, groundnut, cassava, vegetables and sorghum. A total of 504 farmers (including 34 females) benefited from GH¢ 78, 31420 credited.
And 51 bags (4080kgs) of raw cashew nuts was produced and sold to processors outside the district in the 2010 season.
AFRICAN CASHEW INITIATIVE (ACI)
The ACI a joint programme by the African Cashew Alliance (ACA) the German NGO GIZ and funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation has come to continue the gains of CDP.
The focus of the ACI which commenced this year, 2010 is on;
• Nursery Establishment
• Establishment of new farms
• Management of existing farms
• Rejuvenation of unproductive farms
• Pest and disease control
Livestock Development Project (LDP) – 2003 – 2010
The Livestock Development Project (LDP) seeks to increase the incomes of the small holder Livestock and Dairy farmers, processors and traders. These are to be achieved through the following:-
a) Development of Animal production
b) Development of Animal Health
c) Credit provision
d) Capacity building
e) Project management
The performance of the LPD in the district has been impressive. The interventions have brought about increase in stock numbers from (2004-2010). Cattle increased by 104%, sheep by 67%, goats by 150%, pigs by 133% and local poultry by 63%.
The cash credit component was replaced by the credit-in-kind scheme due to low recovery. A total of 1,200 sheep was brought from outside the country and distributed to 120 farmers.
Small Ruminant/Animal Traction Project
This project with its nucleus at the Nkwanta Livestock Station had its main objective of promoting the multiplication improved breeds and Animal Traction for land preparation and carting of farm produce. Small holder credit, input and marketing project (Scump) in 1995.
Established under the SCIMP, it sought to improve the local breeds of sheep and goats with the Sahelian ones. Now it is supplying pure local breeds to smallholder farmers as well as training them in small ruminant production technique and Animal Traction. The project supplied 270 improved breeding stock to small holder farmers in the Volta Region, trained 125 farmers in animal production at 55 animal in traction. The station is also playing a major role in the implementation of the LDP in the Region.
Mass Cocoa Spraying Exercise
The main objectives are:
• To increase the yield of cocoa through pests and diseases’ control.
• To increase the Foreign Exchange from cocoa exports and hence income for the farmers.
The exercise is taking place in the cocoa growing areas in the Southern and Western parts of the district. These include Brewaniase, Obanda, Salifu, Kecheibi, Panku-Dain and Bontibor, Abubruwa, Odumase, Krontang. It is covering 720 ha of cocoa plantation. The mass spraying exercise has increased the production of the crop from 90 tons in 1999 to over 200 Tonnes in 2010.
Root and tuber improvement and marketing programme (RTIMP)
The RTIMP is enhancing income and food security to improve livelihoods of the rural poor and is building a market based system to ensure profitability at all levels of the value chain for cassava and yam.
The programme is perusing the following:
Strengthening of farmer groups and associations of the root and tuber farmers, processors and traders. And linking these small producers and processor to large scale markets.
Supporting the root and tuber production through research, planting material multiplication and distribution, improved cultivation practices and soil fertility management.
The RTIMP is also upgrading the small scale processing and developing business and marketing skills by organizing farmer visits to the Good practices centres established in Krontang in the district. Training in business development and operations of a Micro-Enterprise Fund to assist the processors upgrade their existing equipments.
So far, five (5) Farmer Field Fora (FFF) has been organized to help about 250 farmers improve their cultivating practices in cassava production.
Over 1,596 farmers were supplied with planting materials. Three hundred (300) cassava processors trained on quality management in the cassava supply chain. Forty (20) bakers trained in using High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) in confectionary. One hundred and fifteen (115) (73 females and 42 males) processors and traders were given knowledge on generic business development and microfinance management.
Wildlife Division Kyabobo National Park Development Project
The creation of the Kyabobo National Park in the District made it necessary to introduce some environmentally friendly and economically viable and sustainable income generating activities into the communities around the fringes of the Park. These activities include: Beekeeping, Small ruminant rearing and establishment of Fruit Tree and Woodlot plantations. These income-generating activities will minimize poaching and other illegal activities and sustain the Park. The DADU is collaborating in training and monitoring activities of the beneficiaries. In the main, the project seeks.
• To offer alternative source of livelihood to people on the fringes of the park.
• To reduce the dependency of the inhabitants on the forest
• To eliminate the incidence of bush fires and deforestation in the park associated with human activities such as hunting for game and honey.
World Vision International Project
Nkwanta Area Development Programme ADP is collaborating with the DADU in the following areas:
– Small ruminant production
– Tree crop nursery
– Enhance program: vegetable and poultry
The Apiculture project is aimed at reducing wild honey hunting and its effects on the environment. Apiculture is to serve as alternative source of income to farmers thereby reducing their over reliance on the traditional crops. About 774 beehives were supplied to 258 trained farmers (200 males, 58 females).
The small ruminant project trained beneficiary farmers in basic skills in managing small animals. Under this project 454 farmers were trained and 287 (108 females, 179 males) were supplied with small ruminants for rearing. Also training was given to 25 grasscutter farmers and 15 were supplied with 45 grasscutters and cages.
The nursery supplied 11, 570 oil palm, 400 citrus, 400 mango, 800 moringa seedlings to farmers to enhance achieve the following:
– 168 rabbits distributed to 56 farmers (44 males, 12 females)
– 198 cockerel and 194 pullets distributed to 238 beneficiaries (155 females, 83 males).
Train farmers to acquire the technology of budding and grafting as well as nursery management in crops like citrus and mangoes.
The WVI Enhance programme sought to improve on the nutrition of beneficial especially children.
– vegetable gardening
– vegetable processing and utilization
– rabbit rearing and planting of fruit trees (mangoes and citrus)
WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT – WADEP
Women and Development project is an NGO under the Catholic diocese of Jasiken and operating in the Nkwanta South District. WADEP collaborates with MOFA in the area of training farmers in Apiculture and dry season vegetable farming. So far, about 55 farmers trained.
Extension Services in the District are improving rapidly with the decentralization of MOFA. However the large farmer/AEA ratio (3000:1) and the very large operational areas are limiting factors. The District has been divided into 13 AEA operational areas with 4 supervising zones.
|1. Brewaniase zone||1. Abubruwa||Abubruwa, Obanda, Kankye-akura|
|3. Pusupu||Pusupu, Laboano|
|4. Salifu||Salifu, Ahundwo, Kpeve|
|2. Nkwanta West zone||1. Odumase||Nkwanta West, Krontang, Odumase Kabre-kura, Ashiabre|
|2. Kecheibi||Kecheibi, Dain-kope, Alokpatsa, “B” zongo|
|3. Tutukpene||Kenten, Tutukpene, Akyem, Ofosu, Ofosu-Battor|
|3. Nkwanta East zone||1. Odomi||Nkwanta East, Odomi, Kromase, Shiare, Kabre-kura (Sabon)|
|2. Keri||Gekrong, Keri, Pawa Bonga, Kue|
|3. Abrewankor||Abrewankor Junction, Abrewankor, Nyambong, Mangokura|
|4. Bonakye zone||1. Agou||Agou Junction, Kunji, Agou, Kabiti|
|2. Bonakye||Nyarkomah, Sikafo abantem, Asuogya, Bonakye, Portripor, Jumbo|
FERTILIZER SUBSIDY PROGRAMME
The Block Farming Project under the National Youth Employment Program, Youth in Agriculture is being implemented in the district. This Project is taking advantage of the Fertilizer subsidy policy of the Government and linking the numerous poor small scale farmers to get subsidized inputs to produce maize, rice and vegetable.
The district in 2010 received 1,017 bas of NPK and 1,013 bags of SOA fertilizer, maize and rice seeds which was supplied to farmers. Some farmers were also assisted to prepare their lands through contract ploughing engaging the services of the few private tractor operators in the district.
Nkwanta District has a lot of potentials in Crops, Livestock production and Fisheries. In terms of crop production it has advantages in yams, cassava, rice, vegetables, cocoa, maize and oil palm.
There are vast stretches of land under very suitable climatic conditions for cultivating yams without the laborious processes of staking. Cassava can also be cultivated on vast areas under mechanization.
Rice cultivation can be done in the estimated 5000 hectares of low lying lands and river basins. The rivers can also be dammed to cultivate vegetables under irrigation, aquaculture and provide water for livestock.
Cashew is very suitable in the transitional zone, which covers about ½ of the area of the District. This condition can also support a huge beekeeping industry in the District. Almost 50% of the total cultivable land area in the District is semi deciduous forest. This has enormous potentials to increase the production of cocoa, oil palm, citrus and black pepper.
The District has enormous potential for Agro-processing industries. But presently there is only cassava that is being processed into gari and some chips, (kokonte). Currently the district can boost of only one good practices centre of gari processing located at Krontang. Most of the gari is produced by numerous small individual processors using equipments that need upgrading or replacement.
Nkwanta South District currently produces over 583,000 tons of Cassava annually.
SCALE OF PRODUCTION OF GARI
|YEAR||CASSAVA (MT)||ESTIMATED PRODUCTION OF GARI (MT)||AVERAGE PRICE OF GARI (MUDU 2.2KG) GH¢|
The potential to increase this to over 1 million tons within one (1) year is there.
Integrated cassava processing factories are urgently needed to process the raw cassava into:-
• High quality cassava flour (HQCF) to replace wheat flour for baking.
• Cassava Starch for industrial use
• Gari for human consumption
• Tapioca and Biscuits for human consumption
• Animal Feed (cassava and peels + soya bean _ others) for Livestock and poultry.
Over 114,000 tons of yams are currently produced annually in the District; and the potential to increase the production is great. These can be processed into:-
• Yam Fufu Powder
• Yam chips/Crisps
• Yam Samovita (yam+ soyabeans + Maize flour)
Nkwanta South District currently has about 177 Hectares of Cashew Plantations. These can be increased to over 1,000 hectares.
Cashew Processing have to be in place to start processing over 4,000 tons of Cashew nuts and another 6,000 tons of cashew apple into:-
• Cashew nut juice for industrial uses
• Cashew nuts for food
• Cashew soft drinks
• Cashew wine
• Cashew vinegar
• Cashew spirits (gin, whisky, brandy etc).
The Apiculture Development Projects being supported by World Vision International and Kyabobo National Park Development Project presently have some 1000 improved Beehives in the District. These hives produce over 10,000 litres of Honey annually. These will increase 100 fold in five (5) years time when Cashew plantations expand to over 5,000 hectares.
The millions of litres of honey to be produced must be process into:-
• Honey Jam for bread spreads
• Honey wax for the textile industries
• Pharmaceutical products
SHEA NUT PROCESSING
There are large quantities of shea nuts that can be picked in the two savanna zones.
Establishing a Shea nut processing in the district will create a market pool which will encourage picking of the nuts.