The South Dayi District lies within latitudes 3o 20N and 3.5o 05N and lies approximately on longitude 0o17E. It shares boundaries with Kpando, Hohoe, Ho and Asuogyaman Districts, while the Volta Lake form the western boundary. The district covers a total area of 100 square kilometres with some parts submerged by the Volta Lake.
The district is easily accessible by roads such as the one which runs from Kpando through Kpeve to Accra and Hohoe through Kpeve to Ho.
The most conspicuous physical features of the South Dayi District are the Akwapim-Togo-Atakora ranges which forms the eastern boundary between South Dayi and Ho Districts, South of latitude 3o28N. Scattered over the district are hills and ridges which give the topography undulating nature. Examples of these hills are at Tsatee, Akpato, Amekulotoe and Abanyakoe.
The vegetation of the District is a mix of Guinea woodland and deciduous forest. The savanna woodlands consist of grass with scattered trees including bamboos, baobab and acacia. The semi-deciduous forests are found on the slopes of the Akwapim-Togo-Attakora hills and parts of Tsate, To Kpalime and Dzemeni areas. Much of the forests have however been lost due to lumbering and bad farming/bush burning practices.
The major soil types in the district are the savanna ochrosols and ground water laterites. But along the Volta Lake, alluvial silty loam predominates. Inventories made to classify soils according to their general and chemical characteristics indicate the soils in the district are of low organic matter, low fertility and low moisture holding capacity. There is widespread soil erosion at various parts of the district.
The District Agricultural Development Unit (DADU) of South Dayi is also promoting the use of mucuna (a legume) to improve upon soil fertility in the district (as there is very low usage of fertilizers, especially chemical fertilizers by farmers) and in various local diets.
The climate of the district is tropical. It is greatly influenced by the south-west monsoons from the South Atlantic, and dry harmattan winds from the Sahara.
There are two (2) rainy seasons; the major one from mid April to early July and minor one from September to November. Over 50% of the total rain falls in the major season.
The average annual rainfall varies from 900mm to 1300mm. However, there are considerable variations in the onset, duration and intensity of the monthly rainfall.
Generally, rainfall is inadequate even during the major season for reliable production. Failures of the minor season rains have often been experienced.
Drainage and Water Resources:
The district is drained by the Volta Lake and River Dayi. The Volta Lake runs virtually along the whole of the western boundary, and its basin provides a prime farming land suitable for the cultivation of various food and industrial crops. The Volta Lake provides a thriving fishing ground for communities along the lake. The lake also provides opportunity for lake transport.
River Dayi also started from the western boundary but entered Lake Volta before reaching Akpato..
The People of South Dayi District
The people of South Dayi are very homogenous in terms of language and culture. There are four (4) traditional areas; Peki, Kpalime, Tongor and Kpeve. They all speak Ewe and their culture is virtually the same. They are well united under their traditional leaders. Hence they recognize and respect chieftaincy as a unifying institution.
Spatial Distribution of Human Population:
This spatial distribution of the population in the South Dayi District appears to be dictated by the physical factors. The distribution pattern reveals that the human population is found mostly along the hills and the Volta Lake. The population distribution is skewed in favour of rural areas as shown in the table below:
Distribution of Population
Hierarchy of Settlement:
From the settlement analysis the first nine (9) settlements have a population of 24,329, which constitutes 85.3% of the District population. This means that 85.3% of the entire district population is concentrated in nine towns.
The following table depicts the hierarchy of settlement absolutely in terms of population and service delivery function.
Population And Service Delivery
|S/No.||Settlement||Population||Rank (pop)||Rank Service|
Kpeve New town
Family land ownership is the predominant land tenure system in the district. Under this system a piece of land belonging to a family is allocated to family members to cultivate but without permanent individual ownership.
There is also a system of share cropping and leasing of land to tenant farmers. Under this system, the tenant shares the farm produce according to the agreement between the tenant and the landlord. In most cases the ratio is 2:1 in favour of the tenant.
There is also a system of outright purchase of land where necessary.
The free livestock grazing system also exists where livestock roam about and graze freely on land not under food crop production.
For ease of rendering Agricultural Extension Services the District has been divided into four (4) zones: Kpeve Zone, Peki South, Peki North and Dzemeni Zone.
According to the physical features and demographic characteristics of the district the following table shows the possible agricultural activities that can be carried out in the various zones.
Possible Land Use
|Zone||Possible Land Use||Remarks|
|– Forestry Development on the hills
– Poultry and Small Ruminant
– Fish production
|The Zone is full of hills, and the
Volta Lake runs along the western
border of the zone.
Rapid population increase is possible in the future as this zone includes the capital of the district
|– Forestry Development on the hills
– Maize, Cassava, Yam Groundnut and
– Poultry and Small Ruminant
– Tree Crop development oil palm,
mango, and cashew production
– Irrigated vegetable farming (pepper)
– Livestock Development: Small
Ruminants and pigs production.
|4. Peki North
|– Forestry Development on the hills
– Poultry and Small Ruminant
– Maize, Cassava, Yam and Cowpea
|The Zone is full of hills.|
The economy of the district is basically similar to those of other rural district in the region. Agriculture (arable farming) is the most significant economic activity and it is estimate that about 62% of the active population is engaged either directly or indirectly in this sector.
Agriculture, including crop production, fishing livestock production and forestry, forms the leading sector in the district economy. It provides employment for about 62% of the population. Agriculture forms the basis for successful operation of the thriving markets in the district.
The main crops cultivated in the district are maize, cassava, pepper, yam, plantain, cowpea and vegetables. These crops are cultivated for home consumption and for sale.
The most prevalent crop is maize which is estimated to cover from 30% – 50% of the total land under cultivation. It is grown all over the district especially in the area around Peki.
Cassava is also a major crop. Its production is centered around Peki and Sanga. The district is suitable for the cultivation of yam by virtue of its location in the transitional agro-ecological zone. Water yam is fairly cultivated in the district for both domestic consumption and export to other districts.
Non-traditional export crops like pawpaw, pineapples and mango can also do well in the district. Oil palm and cashew can also do well in certain parts of the district. Crop production in the district is characterized by:-
• Smallholder farmers
• The use of simple techniques
• Bush fallow or shifting cultivation
• Heavy dependence on the rains
• High level of post harvest losses
• Low level of fertilizer application
• Use of poor agronomic practices and
• Pest and disease attack.
The table below shows the major crop, estimated area cultivated, average yield per hectare and outputs for 2007 in the South Dayi District
Estimated Production of Major crops in the South Dayi District in Metric Tonnes (MT).
|Major Crops||Cropped Area (Ha)||Production (MT) Year|
Source: SRID Survey.
Cassava production in the district is supported by Root and Tuber Improvement Project (RTIP) at Kpeve Agricultural station which multiplies the improved varieties of cassava planting materials for farmers.
Fish farming was introduced in 2006 and is catching on very fast. For example, there are ten (10) cages at Kpeve Tornu and also several others at Kayira Tornu. The major problem facing the industry is the high cost of fish feed and net. The potential is however great.
Lake fishing accounts for the bulk of fish landed in the district. Migrant fishermen who supply about 20% of the district daily requirement of fish carry out most of the inland fishing in the Volta Lake along the 80km lake shore of the district. Dzemeni is an important market which thrives on the fishing industry.
Dzemeni has a comparative advantage in fishing given the existence of the Volta Lake. Fish catch have increased steadily over the years at Dzemeni.
The table below shows the volume of fish Landed at Dzemeni in 2009 (kg)
Fresh Fish Landed at Dzemeni 2009 (kg).
Source: Field data collected by DADU – South Dayi
Overall Total Fish Catch in 2009 = 157,672
Average catch per month = 13,139
Average No. of Fishing Canoes = 51
Average No. of Fishing Days = 18
Average CPUE I Month = 434
Average CPUE 1 Day = 25.58
NB: CPUE = Catch per Unit Effort
Not withstanding the increase in the volume of fish landed there is a problem with the use of inappropriate fishing methods that threatens the sustainability of the industry. Prominent among these methods are:
● Bamboo traps
● Poisonous chemicals
The potentials for animal production, especially poultry, small Ruminants (sheep and goats) and Micro livestock (Non-traditional small stock) are very high when one considers the agro-ecology and the size of the district.
Poultry production (both local and exotic) is scattered all over the district. Some infrastructure for large scale production of poultry can be found at the Kpeve Agricultural station and Todome all in the Kpeve Zone of the district. While the exotic birds are housed, the Local poultry production is carried out on free range.
The Kpeve Rural Poultry Development Project at Kpeve Agricultural Station supports the upgrading of the local stock of poultry through the supply of improved cockerel to farmers.
Small Ruminants production is also scattered in the district and has a high potential for development if the farmers can be made to take their production as a business and be ready to adequately house, feed and cater for the health of the animals. Presently, sheep and goats production is mainly on free range. Consequently excessive inbreeding leading to slow growth rate is one of the problems confronting the industry.
Pig production in the district is steadily increasing and its production concentrates mainly in the Dzemeni Zone.
Improper and inadequate feeding are the greatest problems facing the pig industry in the district. The Kpeve Agricultural station is also gradually developing infrastructure that will facilitate the supply of pig breeding stock to farmers.
Cattle production is also on the increase in the district. Its production is concentrated mainly in the Kpeve and Dzemeni Zones. There is a thriving Livestock Market (for sheep, goats, pigs and cattle) at Dzemeni which needs to be propped up to function properly.
Some farmer groups have expressed interest in Guinea fowl production. DADU is therefore considering promotion of Guinea fowl production among the youth. As a result, this issue was discussed with the District Assembly and they are undertaking parent stock production at the Kpeve Agricultural Station.
The market at Dzemeni and Kpeve are the major source of grain supply that can make any investment in Livestock feed production viable.
Agro-forestry has a role to play in the development of the district. This is because privately owned teak plantations are being cut indiscriminately and sold to contractors due to poverty. Forest and other large areas are being exploited for charcoal and fuel-wood production especially in Todome and Dzemeni areas. Indiscriminate bush burning in the dry season has also contributed to the degradation of large tracts of land.
Services to Agriculture
Agricultural extension services:
The District Agricultural Development Unit (DADU) is the main facilitator of increased agricultural production, productivity and growth in the district. It is expected to provide efficient and cost-effective services in the areas of appropriate agricultural technology delivery, processing/preservation and marketing of all farm-based activities such as crops, livestock and agro-forestry and fish production. DADU is tasked with the provision of feedback on agricultural research and other support services to farmers’ priority needs.
Agricultural Extension in the district is however, hampered by the following factors:
• Limited number of well qualified staff
• Ratio of field staff to farmers is very low
• Poor logistic support
• Poor nature of access roads
To facilitate agricultural extension delivery to the farmers the district is divided into four (4) zones with ten (10) operational areas in all. Each operational area is controlled by an Agricultural Extension Agent (AEA) who assists farmers to improve upon their farming practices for increased production and productivity. DADU also has Agricultural station at Kpeve that conducts research, supply of planting materials and breeding animals. Thus, we have Root and Tuber Improvement Project (RTIP) Livestock and Poultry improvement project.
Presently there are five (5) tractors that offer services to farmers in the district.
The distribution of these tractors is as follows:
Distribution of tractors offering services in the district
Location of Tractor Services
|No. of Tractor||Location||Zone||Remarks|
|2||Kpeve Agric Station||Kpeve||Need servicing|
|1||Peki Senior High School||Peki-Sanga||On good condition|
Agro Chemical Stores:
Agro-chemical stores are found at Kpeve, Dzemeni and Peki. However several individuals come and sell on market days.
The distribution of agro-chemical stores is shown below:
Town No. of Agro-Chemical Store
Agro-Based Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs):
There is one NGO i.e Associates For Sustainable Rural Development (ASRuD) currently working on value chain development.
Arrangement are under way to attract more NGOs into the district.
Farmer Based Organisation(FBOs)
There are eleven registered active FBOs in the district. They are engaged in the various activities along the value chain (production – marketing).
Post Harvest Equipment/Warehouse:
The farmers use the traditional crib to store maize and yam therefore there are no known elaborate post harvest equipment/warehouse in the district apart from those at equatorial ventures for the preservation of vegetables and maize.
South Dayi District is accessed mainly by network of Highways and Feeder roads. The main road is 80km from Asikuma through Peki to Kpeve. Others, which are feeder roads, include the following:
• 18km Todome-Tsate-Kpalime – Dzemeni road
• 18km Asikuma-Anum-Dzemeni road
• Wusuta-Tsibu road
The urban roads include those of Kpeve and Peki. Most of the feeder roads become impassable during the rainy season as a result of erosion of the carriage way and lack of bridge and culverts and the absence of routine maintenance by the Department of Feeder Roads.
The public transport system consists of mini buses and cargo trucks. Individuals under the GPRTU mainly operate it. The linter-City S.T.C. also operates in the District even though at very irregular intervals.
The Volta Lake with a shoreline of 80km long forms the western boundary of the South Dayi District. The District is easily accessible by river craft and engine boats. There is therefore, much interaction between the two entry points of Kpando-Torkor and Dzemeni. The problem with lake transport is the presence of many tree stumps in the lake and lack of landing site. There is also inadequate number of river crafts.
Other Means Of Transport
Head loading the use of carts and bicycles to convey agricultural produce are also carried out. There are not enough tracks leading to farms in the district.
1.4 The district has three (3) major banks. Ghana Commercial Bank, Weto Rural Bank and Agricultural Development Bank.
The following are their locations:
Banks in the District and their locations
|1. Ghana Commercial Bank||Peki-Blengo|
|2. Weto Rural Bank||Kpeve|
|3. Agric Development Bank||Kpeve|
|4. Other subsidiary Bank Anum Rural Bank|
1.5 Listed below are some of the agricultural projects in the South Dayi District
Some Agricultural Project Found In the District
|No.||Name of Farm/Project||Commodity Produced||Location||Zone||Remarks|
|1.||Kpeve Agric Station||i) Cassava planting material
ii) Coconut Nursery
iii) Rural Poultry Dev. Project
iv) Pig Breeding Project
|2.||Equatorial/Ventures||Exotic vegetables and fruits for export||Peki-Agbate||Peki-Sanga|
|3.||Task farms||Herbs and mangoes||Dzakiti||Dzemeni|
|4.||E.P. Church Fish Pound||Fish||Fishing||Kpeve||Abandoned|
|5.||Fish smoking sheds||Fish smoking||Dzemeni||Dzemeni|
|6.||Palm oil extraction||Palm oil||Peki||Peki Sanga||Small scale Unorganized|
|7.||Gari Processing||Gari||Scattered||All zone||Small scale Unorganized|
|8.||Tobacco curing||Tobacco||Todome||Kpeve||Small scale Unorganized|
|9.||Logging||Logs||All the district||All zones||Need Environmentally
Crop farmers under take
– Palm wine tapping
– Charcoal making
During the off-season; while fishermen undertake drawdown vegetable, rice and cassava farming along the Volta Lake shore.
There are three (3) main markets in the district. These are Kpeve, Peki and Dzemeni. Peki and Dzemeni markets come on every five days. While the Kpeve one comes on Tuesday and Friday the Dzemeni one comes on every Thursdays.
There are no warehouses in the markets. Thurs, safe-keeping, storage and preservation in the markets cannot be guaranteed. Sanitation facilities (toilets and baths) are also not attached to the markets.
There are no abattoirs attached to the markets and livestock are slaughtered on unprotected slabs in the markets at Kpeve and Dzemeni.
There is a thriving but undeveloped livestock market at Dzemeni where cattle, sheep/goats and pigs are being sold.
The following are the only agricultural infrastructure found in the district.
(i) Kpeve Agricultural Station. This has the following infrastructure.
– Numerous Buildings all in a state that need rehabilitation
– Feed mill which is occasionally used
– Poultry Units – also in a state that needs rehabilitation
– Nursery Irrigation Infrastructure
(ii) Some few silos for grain storage at Agbetey. These are no more in use
(iii) FASCOM building at Peki – Now converted into block making factory.
(iv) One (1) Front line staff (FLS) quarters at Kpalime Duga.
(v) One (1) Fisheries quarters and offices at Dzemeni
(vi) Public Fish Smoking shed is constructed at Dzemeni
Land Tenure System
Family land ownership is the predominant land tenure system in the district. Under this system, a piece of land belonging to a family is allocated to family members to cultivate but without permanent individual ownership. Three crops cultivated belong to the individual family member to whom the land is allocated.
There is also a system of share cropping and leasing of land to tenant farmers. Under this system the tenant share the farm produce according to the agreement between the tenant and the landlord and also the type of crop cultivated. In most cases the ratio is 2:1 in favour of the tenant. In other cases it may be 1:1. Under the leasing system the tenant pays an agreed sum of money for a piece of land rented for seasons or years. There is also a system of outright purchase of land where necessary.
The free communal grazing system also exists where livestock roam about and graze freely on land not under food crop production.
Stakeholders In Agricultural Development
The District Agricultural Development Unit (DADU), Schools, the District Assembly and the Farmers are the main stakeholders in agricultural development in the district.
There is no known registered Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) promoting agriculture in the district even though some NGOs from outside the district occasionally come to train farmers. There is, therefore, the utmost need for the District Assembly, being the District Government and a major stakeholder, to collaborate fully with DADU in order to promote agricultural development and the eradication poverty in the district.