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Survey on Small Scale Irrgation and Dugouts

1.0    INTRODUCTION 

         The Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA) has compiled information on formal irrigation schemes in the country. Unfortunately, there is almost no information on informal irrigation. Though there exist quite a number of small scale farmers involved in the informal irrigation, using various systems that involve some permanent structures, very little data exist on their operations.

According to the scanty information available on informal irrigation in the country, it is indicated that informal irrigation actually covers a larger area than that covered by formal irrigation. For instance, around Kumasi metropolis alone, reports indicate that there are at least 12,700 smallholders irrigating more than 11,900 ha in the dry season (Obuobie E. et al, 2006) .

Irrigation development requires long lead times in terms of assembling resource inventories, planning, design, construction and training of farmers to adapt to irrigation as a way of life. With the completion of the irrigation policy, it appears that the only hindrance to a national irrigation development plan is the absence of reliable data on existing dams and dugouts and similar infrastructure to build a database on the irrigation potential in the country and subsequently a Master Plan for irrigation development. 

In October 1999, GIDA undertook a survey of dams and dugouts in Ghana as the first step for building up a national database on informal irrigation.  However, the responses from some districts left a lot to be desired. Consequently, a second phase of this survey was conducted to review the data collected in 1999 and collect data from the other districts that did not respond to the questionnaire sent them.   

This report is a combination of data collected in 1999 and 2008. The main text presents information on the number of dams/dugouts and areas under irrigation for the formal and informal subsectors. However, due to the peculiar nature of areas under irrigation along fringes of lagoons and depressions in the Keta District, information regarding such areas in the Keta District have been separated from the informal subsector for easy analysis.

1.1 Objectives of the Survey
The specific objectives of the survey included:

  • Provision of database on existing dams and dugouts and similar water storage structures in Ghana to complement the data collected in the survey of 1999.
  • Assessment of the potential of existing dams and dugouts and similar structures in the development of irrigation in the country.
  • Creation of awareness among districts assemblies on the potential of the dams, dugouts and other structures for agricultural development in the various districts.
  • Sensitization of various farmer groups that might be using water from the identified infrastructure for agricultural production on the existence of GIDA as potential allies in irrigated crop production.

1.2 Methodology

The survey covered selected districts in all ten regions that did not respond to the October 1999 survey namely; Greater Accra, Volta, Eastern, Upper East, Upper West, Ashanti, Central, Northern, Brong Ahafo and Western regions.
It was carried out jointly by GIDA staff and Agricultural Extension Agents of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture in the various districts.

The data collection involved the administration of questionnaire that addressed specific issues such as area under irrigation, dam/dugout size and utilisation of the facility.   

 

2.0       RESULTS OF THE SURVEY

Table 1 below presents a summary of the total number of dams and dugouts on informal irrigation in all the 10 regions of the country.
The survey revealed that there are 755 dams and 2,633 dugouts in the informal sector. Volta Region recorded the highest number of dams (164), while Ashanti Region recorded the least (19). 
In the case of dugouts, the highest number of 838 was recorded in Western Region with the Upper West Region recording the least (54).

Irrigated Urban Vegetable Production in Ghana; Characteristics, Benefits and Risks. IWMI – RAUF – CPNF, Accra- Ghana.

Table 1: Summary of Regions and Number of Dams and Dugouts (Informal)

Regions

Number of Dams

Number of Dugouts

Greater Accra

32

218

Eastern

73

115

Volta

164

136

Upper West 

84

54

Upper East

147

129

Ashanti

19

219

Western

50

838

Brong Ahafo

37

259

Central

21

267

Northern

128

398

Total

755

2633

Table 2: Summary of Districts and Regions and areas under Informal Irrigation

Regions

Number of Districts

Area under Irrigation  (Ha)

Eastern

17

569.16

Volta

8

1187.20

Upper East

9

957.05

Greater Accra

5

162.40

Upper West

7

711.00

Ashanti

16

1957.43

Western

12

916.00

Brong Ahafo

20

2816.60

Central

12

324.60

Northern

28

660.90

Total

134

10,262.34

Table 2 above shows a summary of the regions and districts and areas under informal irrigation.
Out of a total area under irrigation covering 10,262.34 ha for all ten regions, Brong Ahafo Region had the largest area with 2,816.60 ha. This was a little over a quarter of the total area under informal irrigation representing 27.45%. Central Region with 324.60 ha, recorded the least area under irrigation representing 3.16% of the total area under informal irrigation.  

Table 3 provides details of areas under informal irrigation for the various districts of the study while Table 4 shows details of number of dams and dugouts in each district/region. 

 

Table 3: Summary of Regions and Districts and areas under Informal Irrigation (ha)

Region   

District

Area under Irrigation  (ha)

 

GREATER ACCRA

Accra Metroplolis

10.90

 

Tema Municipality

37

 

Ga

0

 

Dangme East

0

 

Dangme West

114.50

 

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

162.4

 

VOLTA

Adaklu Anyigbe

0

 

South Tongu

0

 

North Tongu

0

 

Krachi West

0

 

Krachi East

0

 

Keta

1058

 

Ketu

0

 

Jasikan

0

 

South Dayi

20

 

Ho

109.20

 

Akasti

0

 

Kadjebi

0

 

Denu

0

 

Krachi East

0

 

Kpando

0

 

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

1187.2

 

EASTERN

West Akim Municipality

81.6

 

Kwahu South

158.40

 

Kwahu West

28

 

East Akim

38

 

Atiwa

26

 

New Juabeng

0.80

 

Manya Krobo

51.20

 

Kwaebibirem

31.60

 

Kwahu North

0

 

Birim North

38

 

Birim South

14.76

 

Yilo Krobo

5.8

 

Suhum Kraboa Coaltar

23

 

Akuapem North

0

 

Fanteakwa

72

 

Asuogyaman

0

 

Akuapem South

0

 

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

569.16

 

UPPER WEST

Jirapa/ Lambussie

29

 

Lawra

0

 

Sissala East

49

 

Sissala West

85

 

Wa Municipality

17

 

Wa West

139

 

Wa East

32

 

Nadowli

360

 

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

711

 

UPPER EAST

Bolgatanga

114.50

 

Garu Tempane

377.35

 

Talensi Nabdam

116

 

Bawku West

161.60

 

Kassena Nankana

20

 

Builsa

71.60

 

Bongo

21

 

Bawku East      

75

 

Subtotal of area under irrigation 

 

957.05

 

CENTRAL

Ajumako Enyan Essiam

0

Agona

0

Gomoa

281.6

Cape Coast Metropolis

0

Upper Denkyira

0

Awutu Efutu Senya

0

Komenda Edina  Eguafo Abrem

0

Agona   Swedru

0

Asikuma Odoben  Brakwa

0

Mankessim

0

Assin  North Municipality

0

Mfantsiman

43

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

324.60

ASHANTI

Offinso North

486.8

Offinso South

35

Adansi North

155

Adansi South

3.8

Atwima Nwabiagya

83.6

Asante Akim South

0.9

Atwima Mponua

102

Ejura Sekyeredumasi

4.23

Kumasi Metropolis

0.2

Amansie West

77.3

Ahafo Ano North

0

Ahafo Ano South

8.6

Adansi West

0

Sekyere West

0

Sekyere East

0

Bosomtwe Atwima Kwanwoma

0

Ejisu Juabeng

0

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

1957.43

WESTERN

Bia

17.5

Bibiani Anhwiaso Bekwai

10

Ahanta West 

60

Mpohor Wassa East

21.4

Sekondi Takoradi Metropolis

0

Shama District Assembly

18

Nzema East

0

Aowin Suaman

0

Sefwi Wiawso

720

Juaboso

69.1

Wassa Amenfi West

0

Wassa Amenfi East

0

Jomoro

0

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

916.0

BRONG AHAFO

Berekum

6.4

Asunafo South

0

Tano North

0

Jaman South

0

Sunyani Municipality

218

Techiman

1702

Pru

0

Kintampo South

700

Tano South

0

Dormaa

0

Tain

0

Wenchi

55

Kintampo North

0

Sene

0

Tano

0

Atebubu

0

Asunafo Asutifi

0

Asunafo North Municipality

0

Nkoranza

19.2

Jaman North

116

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

2816.60

NORTHERN

Bole

0

Mandari

0

Chache

0

Mankuma

0

Tinga

0

Danda Nkwanta

0

Bamboi

0

Bunkpurugu Yunyoo

1

Central Gonja

0

East Gonja

0

East Mamprusi

8

Gushiegu

0

Bimbilla (Nanumba North)

0

Bimbilla (Nanumba South)

3.4

Saboba

60

Chereponi

500

Savelugu Nanton

38

Tamale Metropolis

8

West Mamprusi

0

Zabzugu Tatale

0

Karaga

42.5

Tamale Municipality

0

Mpaha

0

Buipe Zone

0

Tuluwe Zone

0

Yapei Zone

0

Daboya Zone

0

Gabanga

0

Walewale

0

Tolon Kumbungu

0

Savelugu

0

Subtotal of area under irrigation  (Ha)

 

660.90

Grand Total

 

10,262.34

 

Table 4: Summary of Number of Dams and Dugouts in Districts and Regions (Informal)

REGION

DISTRICT

No. of DAMS

No. of DUGOUTS

 

GREATER ACCRA

Accra Metropolis

1

20

 

 

Tema Municipality

6

23

 

Ga

7

146

 

Dangme East

13

16

 

Dangme West

5

13

 

Sub total

 

32

218

 

UPPER WEST

Jirapa/ Lambussie

16

 

 

Lawra

5

29

 

Sissala East

12

2

 

Sissala West

9

1

 

Wa Municipality

10

5

 

Wa West

8

5

 

Wa East

12

4

 

Nadowli

12

8

 

Sub total

 

84

54

 

UPPER EAST

Bolgatanga

13

18

 

 

Garu-Tempane

21

4

 

Talensi-Nabdam

21

18

 

Bawku West

33

6

 

Kassena Nankana

24

10

 

Builsa

19

23

 

Bongo

15

18

 

Bawku East      

1

32

 

Sub total

 

147

129

 

4. EASTERN

West Akim Municipality

1

16

 

 

Kwahu South

6

11

 

Kwahu West

1

5

 

East Akim

5

2

 

Atiwa

12

6

 

New Juabeng

1

1

 

Manya Krobo

5

2

 

Kwaebibirem

5

0

 

Kwahu North

5

2

 

Birim North

30

 

Birim South

16

 

Yilo Krobo

9

2

 

Suhum Kraboa Coaltar

5

14

 

Akuapem North

3

3

 

Fanteakwa

0

3

 

Asuogyaman

2

 

Akuapem South

15

 

Sub total

 

73

115

 

5. VOLTA

Adaklu Anyigbe

18

58

 

 

South Tongu

14

 

North Tongu

78

23

 

Krachi West

2

 

Krachi East

2

 

Keta

2

5

 

Ketu

7

11

 

Jasikan

1

8

 

South Dayi

5

1

 

Ho

18

12

 

Akasti

6

16

 

Kadjebi

1

 

Denu

5

 

Hohoe

 

Krachi East

2

 

Kpando

5

 

Sub total

 

164

136

 

CENTRAL

Ajumako Enyan Essiam

1

28

Agona

1

7

Gomoa

15

27

Cape Coast Metropolis

0

67

Upper Denkyira

0

6

Awutu Efutu Senya

0

0

Komenda Edina  Eguafo Abrem

1

0

Agona Swedru

1

0

Asikuma Odoben  Brakwa

2

0

Mankessim**

0

0

Assin North

0

130

Sub total

 

21

265

ASHANTI

Offinso North

3

3

Offinso South

0

20

Adansi North

2

5

Adansi South

0

6

Atwima Nwabiagya

1

8

Asante Akim South

2

22

Atwima Mponua

0

11

Ejura Sekyeredumasi

1

3

Kumasi Metropolis

0

36

Amansie West

5

26

Ahafo Ano North

0

71

Ahafo Ano South

0

8

Adansi West

1

0

Sekyere West

1

0

Sekyere East

1

0

Bosomtwe Atwima Kwanwoma

2

0

Ejisu Juabeng**

0

0

Sub total

 

19

219

WESTERN

Bia

0

18

Bibiani Anhwiaso  Bekwai

2

402

Ahanta West 

1

44

Mpohor Wassa East

1

45

Sekondi Takoradi Metropolis

0

87

Shama District

1

63

Nzema East

1

2

Aowin Suaman

0

77

Sefwi Wiawso

0

17

Juaboso

16

18

Wassa Amenfi West

28

2

Wassa Amenfi East

0

8

Jomoro

0

55

Sub total

 

50

838

BRONG AHAFO

Berekum

0

79

Asunafo South

3

14

Tano North

0

3

Jaman South

0

7

Sunyani Municipality

5

26

Techiman

7

15

Pru

0

11

Kintampo South

9

2

Tano South

1

29

Dormaa

0

14

Tain

3

11

Wenchi

1

2

Kintampo North

5

19

Sene

0

10

Tano

0

1

Atebubu

1

5

Asunafo Asutifi

2

11

Asunafo North Municipality

7

18

Nkoranza

2

0

Jaman North

2

12

Sub total

 

37

259

NORTHERN

Bole

5

4

Mandari

0

2

Chache

0

2

Mankuma

0

7

Tinga

1

7

Danda Nkwanta

1

6

Bamboi

0

7

Bunkpurugu Yunyoo

2

5

Central Gonja

4

39

East Gonja

5

34

East Mamprusi

2

3

Gushiegu

1

43

Bimbilla (Nanumba North)

5

8

Bimbilla (Nanumba South)

7

0

Saboba

0

9

Chereponi

4

6

Savelugu Nanton

6

52

Tamale Metropolis

9

86

West Mamprusi

5

0

Zabzugu Tatale

1

6

Karaga

2

27

Tamale Municipality

59

13

Mpaha

0

7

Buipe Zone

0

3

Tuluwe Zone

0

3

Yapei Zone

0

18

Daboya Zone

0

1

Gabanga

1

0

Walewale

8

0

Tolon Kumbugu**

0

0

Savelugu**

0

0

Sub total

 

128

398

Grand total

 

755

2633

 

The study also collected data on the large number of wells in the Keta District of the Volta Region. Information on these wells which are constructed along fringes of lagoons and depressed areas are presented in Tables 5.   In all, a total of 34,263 wells are located along fringes of lagoons and depressed areas in the Keta District and these irrigate an area of 1052ha. The principal crop produced is shallots and some few other vegetables. 

 

Table 5:  Summary of Wells and Areas under Irrigation along Fringes of Lagoons and Depressions in Keta District.

District

Location

No. of Wells

Area under Irrigation (Ha)

Keta

Anloga

12,272

452

Anyanui-Dzita Agbledome

10,864

268

Atorkor Srogbe Whuti

5,187

132

Woe

4,057

111

Tegbi

1,883

89

TOTAL

 

34,263

1,052

 

 

 

Table 6: Summary of areas under Irrigation (Formal Sector)

Region

Name of Irrigation Scheme

District

Number of dams

Area under Irrigation (Ha)

Greater Accra

Ashaiman

Tema Municipal

1

71

Dawhenya

Dangme West

1

150

Kpong

Dangme West

1

3000

Weija

Ga

1

220

Subtotal

4

3441

Volta

Afife

Ketu

1

880

Aveyime

North Tongu

1

60

Kpando-Torkor

Kpando

1

5.6

Subtotal

 

 

3

945.6

Eastern      

Amate

Kwahu South

1

101

Dedeso

Fanteakwa

1

15

Subtotal

2

116

Upper East

Tono

Kasena Nankana

1

2023

Vea (ICOUR)

Bolgatanga

1

850

Subtotal

2

2873

Central

Mankessim

Mfantsiman

1

17

Okyereko

Gomoa

1

56

Subtotal

2

73

Ashanti

Sata

Sekyere West

1

34

Akumadan

Offinso North

1

65

Anum Valley

Ejisu Juabeng

1

76

Subtotal

 

 

3

175

Western

Kikam

Nzema East

1

27

 

 

 

 

Subtotal

1

27

Brong Ahafo

Subinja

Wenchi

1

60

Tanoso

Techiman

1

96

Subtotal

2

156

         

Northern

Bontanga

Tolon-Kumbungu

1

434

Golinga

Tolon-Kumbungu

1

40

Libga

Savelugu

1

16

Subtotal

3

490

Grand Total

 

 

22

8,296.60

 

Table 6 above indicates a summary of formal irrigation schemes and areas under irrigation across the country. In all, there are 22 formal irrigation schemes in Ghana covering 8,296.60 ha being managed by the Ghana Irrigation Development Authority.

Greater Accra has the largest area of 3441.00 ha of the total area under formal irrigation. Out of this area, the Kpong Irrigation Project in the Dangme West District accounts for the largest area of 3000 ha.

Kpando-Torkor Irrigation Project in the Kpando district of the Volta Region has the least area under formal irrigation covering 5.6 ha.

Crops grown on these formal schemes include rice, maize, cowpea, vegetables, passion-fruits, water melon, with rice and vegetables being most dominant.      

 

3.0       CHALLENGES

The main challenge encountered during this survey was inability of  the Agricultural Extension Agents (AEAs) to provide information on areas where some irrigation was practiced within the district.  This in a way, affected the results of the survey.

Again, some Agricultural Extension Agents (AEAs) /District Directors did not seem to be conversant with the technical features and differences between dams/dugouts, and could have affected the administration of the questionnaire. GIDA therefore took measures to build the capacity of the AEAs/District Directors through a thorough explanation of the questionnaire before the exercise started.  

4.0   RECOMMENDATION                                                                          
Since some AEAs failed to provide information on the actual areas under irrigation thus affecting the actual total area under irrigation, it is recommended that a sample validation exercise be undertaken to ascertain the existence and verify the areas under irrigation and other data presented in this report.
It is obvious that the data collected would need to be updated from time to time, especially with regards to the informal irrigation subsector.