The Bole District is located at the extreme western part of the northern region of Ghana. The District is bordered to the North by Sawla / Tuna Kalba District, to the West by the Republic of Ivory Coast, to the East by West Gonja District and to the South by Wenchi and Kintampo Districts of Brong-Ahafo Region. The District stretches from Bodi in the North to Bamboi in the South.
The Bole District covers an area of about 4800 km2 which is 6.8% of the total landmark of the northern region. It has a population of about 87,656 (Projection based on 2000 population census) and a growth rate is about 3.1% per annum. The population is sparse with a density of about 14 per a km2. The District capital is the only urban centre in the district. Other semi – urban centres include Bamboi, Maluwe, Tinga, and Banda-Nkwanta. There are 148 communities, one town council and five area councils. The households are predominantly headed by male.
The district has a heterogeneous population. The major tribe is Gonja. Other tribal groups are Vagla, Brifor, Safalba, Mo, Dagaaba, Grunshie and the Pantras. Settlement creation in the district is largely on adhoc basis and usually near and around farm. It is also controlled mainly by the desire of people to stay on ethnic / clan basis which has resulted in the scattered communities dotted all over the district.
Relief and Drainage:
The district topography is low undulating with the altitude ranging between 600 to 1200 feet above sea-level. The main drainage system in the district is surface water. Surface water sources in the district comprise many small streams and the Black Volta, 38 dugouts and 6 dams, which are used for livestock, domestic and subsistence irrigation activities. The district is characterized by a good potential groundwater, which is being tapped for human consumption.
Soils in the district are fair. The soils types are savannah ochrosols, which develop under rainfall between 82mm and 103.2mm. These are predominantly medium sandy loams in the upland and valley respectively. There are also patches of gravel to stony land. Along the river banks can be found alluvial sand very good for rice cultivation. The soils are important agriculturally and are suited for a variety of cereals and other cash crops
Vegetation and Rainfall
It is predominantly guinea savannah with grasses intersperse with short trees. The vegetation is however dense to the south that borders the Brong-Ahafo Region and thins out to the Sawla / Tuna / Kalba district. The largest tree area is the Bui National Park. The district experienced a unimodel rainfall pattern which ranges between 800mm to 1200mm per annum and somewhat erratic in nature. The comparative annual rainfall figure recorded form 2003 to 2009 is shown in the chart below.
The District health services are divided into four sub-districts namely Bole, Tinga, Jama and Bamboi. Each sub-district has an operational area served by a health facility. There is a District Hospital located in Bole. The Catholic Church is running a Primary Health Care programme in Bole township. There are 6 operational CHIPS compound in Mankuma, Kakiase, Gbemfu, Maluwe, Banda Nkwanta and Chibrinyoai
The District has 3 educational circuits namely Bole, Tinga and Bamboi. There is a Senior High Schools, 14 Junior Secondary Schools, 57 Primary Schools, and 16-Day Nurseries in the District. There are Adult Literacy programmes going on in the District to address the high illiteracy problem in the District. The GES have re-opening a Vocational school in Bole in addition to the technical school run by the Catholic Church
Only the District capital, Kakiase and Bamboi settlements are connected to the National Grid. One Touch, MTN and Tigo mobile phone services runs across the district in addition to the LAN Line telephone facility which is available to only Bole, Bamboi and Carpenter. Apart from Bole and Bamboi no other community have postal office. Bole and Tinga Township have small water systems, which are operational. There are about 406 Boreholes, 4 protected wells, 38 Dugouts and 6 dams. The four (4) distinct market centres included Bole, Tinga, Banda Nkwanta and Bamboi markets.
The district has 3 Police stations in Bole, Tinga and Bamboi. Catholic Credit Union and the Ghana Commercial Bank are the only permanent financial institution which operates in Bole. Occasionally, Agric. Development Bank disburse loan to farmers under special project. The Bole – Bamboi trunk road has been improved drastically as well as Bole – Baale road.
This economic activity predominates in the district with over 75% of the working force engaged in it. Administratively, the district has three (3) agricultural zones and fourteen (14) operational areas. Agriculture in the district covers food crops (maize, millet, sorghum, rice, groundnuts, cowpea, bambara bean, yam, cassava), cash crops (cashew, shea, mango, dawadawa), livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, guinea fowl, local and exotic fowls), fisheries and bee keeping with emphasis on mechanization, value addition and organized marketing.
Macro Economic Activities
Livelihood in the district basically depends on;
- Farming (at the peasant level)
- Fishing along the Black Volta
- Agro – processing (food processing)
- Sand / stone winning
- Illegal mining (Galamsy
- Dressmaking and Weaving
- Minor repairs (vehicles, bicycle & vulcanizing)
OVERVIEW OF AGRICULTURE
Land and Land Use
Land in the district is owned by natives. The average farm size per holder is about 0.8 hectare. Land is used for crops / livestock farming, tree planting (afforestation), game /forest reserves (Wildlife), road and building construction.
Farmers in the district generally practice shifting cultivation and mixed cropping with a few of them adopting mono cropping and crop rotation. Similarly, livestock and poultry keeping are on extensive system (free range) with a margin keeping to the semi–intensive and intensive system.
Crop Sub – Sector
Crops grown in the district are:
- Food Crops – Cereal (maize, rice, millet, sorghum)
Legumes (groundnuts, bambara beans and cowpea)
Root & Tuber (yam and cassava)
Vegetables (tomato, pepper, onion, amarantus,
Melon (neri and agushi)
- Tree Crops – mango, cashew, sheanut and dawadawa, Cash Crop – mango, cashew, cotton, groundnuts.
Current Food Security Situation
Agriculture in this district is rain-fed and since food availability largely depends on production levels, which is also influenced by the weather as well as land, capital and labour, the lean period corresponds with the dry season, which lasts for about four (4) months. Though over 75% of the populations are engaged in agriculture, farm labour is gradually aging because:
ü Returns on agriculture produce does not entice the youth.
ü High cost of farm input
ü Poor marketing
ü Inadequate farm mechanization services
ü Destruction by alien herds
ü Indiscriminate bush burning
ü Poor soil fertility
ü High pests infestation
ü Inadequate credit facilities to the youth.
ü High migration (drift into non agriculture – illegal mining activities
Lack of appropriate storage facilities and poor post-harvest handling has resulted in high post harvest losses. Urbanization and illegal mining (Galamsay) which has engaged the youth have put pressure on labour cost / mandays.
BOLE DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT UNIT STRUCTURE
- Bole 2.Bamboi 3.Mandari
1. Bole East 2. Bole West 3. Mankuma 4. Mandari 5. Seripe
6. Maluwe 7. Banda Nkwanta 8. Bamboi 9. Chibrinyoa 10. Chache
MID-YEAR REPORT 2011
|No.||What was Planned||Extent of Implementation||Expected Results||Reason for Achievement or Non Achievement|
|1||Conduct 2304 extension visits (farmer contacts) by December 2011||986 extension visits conducted (4646 farmers reached with new technologies)||Farmers knowledge on improved agricultural technologies enhanced||More farmers informed and used improved agricultural technologies.||Inadequate means of transport|
|2||Facilitate the production of maize by December annually||Land preparation and planting is on-going||Maize land under cultivation increased||Increase maize production in the district||Poor rainfall pattern|
|3||Train farmers on proven exiting livestock and poultry husbandry practices.||719 farmers trained on breed improvement, improved housing and good husbandry practices||Knowledge of skills of farmers enhanced in improved livestock & poultry husbandry practices||Population of livestock & poultry increased.|
|4||Facilitate the procurement of improved breeds of livestock and poultry||Improved breed available for crossing||Stocks of local breeds improved||No funds
Farmers unwilling to purchase breeds
|5||Facilitate the production 200ha of Soya beans by December annually||450kg of seed Soya bean distributed to 30 farmers||Farmers knowledge and skills in Soya bean production increased||Area under Soya bean production increased by 50%||Availability of Block Farm package|
|6||Promote the utilization of Soya, Bambara beans & other products||3 women groups trained on food fortification using Soya bean||Knowledge of skills of farmers (women) enhanced on Soya, Bambara bean & Seidubile recipes enhanced||Household nutrition & income improved.|
|7||Train 360 farmers on appropriate use of agro – chemicals by May annually||256 farmers trained on agro-chemical handling (before, during and after use)||Farmers knowledge and skills on the use and handling of agro – chemicals enhanced||Farmers now use recommended chemicals and right dosage.|
|8||Train farmers on post-harvest and quality standards of cashew by April 2011||864 farmers trained on cashew quality standards||Knowledge of skills of 280 farmers enhanced in post-harvest and quality standards of cashew.||Reduced post-harvest losses and high quality cashew produce.||ACI supported with training kits and fuel|
|9||Train farmer group on Agriculture as a business||8 groups completed the 8 models of AAB||Farmers knowledge enhanced on agriculture as a business||Many farmers approach their activities with a business attitude||EWB volunteer built staff capacity on AAB|
|10||Train DADU staff on data collection, analysis and report writing||3 training session on M&E, SRID and PDA usage organised||Knowledge and skills of DADU staff enhanced on data collection, analysis and report writing.||Accurate and reliable agricultural database enhanced.||Adequate funds|
|11||Sensitize and animate farmers on NRGP concept.||2 farmer groups well animated and proposal submitted to AgDB – Wa for assistance.||Farmers have adequate knowledge on NRGP concept.||Unavailable fuel support
Late release of funds
|12||Vaccinate livestock and poultry against schedule diseases and carry out routine surveillance and other clinical activities||2307 goats, 1532 sheep, 100 CBPP, 84 dogs, 12 cats, 1 monkey & 1903 poultry vaccinated against scheduled diseases.||Immunity levels of livestock and poultry enhanced||Mortality and morbidity in livestock and poultry reduced.
Stocks levels increased
|Free VACNADA vaccination programme|
|13||Organise farmers fora on agricultural programmes and interventions.||2 farmers’ fora organised at Banda Nkwanta and Bole||Well informed farmer population on current agricultural programmes and interventions||Enhanced youth participation in agricultural activities|
|14||Conduct listing of agricultural households, farmers registration, tractor registration and sentinel sites data collection||10 EAs listed and 100 households interviewed. 40% of holders field measured.||Database on enumeration areas in the district enhanced||Register on farmers and Production figures computed||Committed staff|
|15||Organise monthly staff review meeting,
Collate, compile and submit progress report on agricultural activities and Conduct monitoring and supervision visits.
|3 staff review meeting organised.
2 quarterly M&E and MDA reports and 6 monthly market information report submitted.
218 monitoring and supervision visits conducted
|DADU staff well informed on current issues e.g. policies, new technologies, Database on agricultural activities in the district enhanced and Gaps between planned and actual identified||Planned activities reviewed to meet the current challenges and
Planned activities kept on track
|Delayed release of funds|
|16||Facilitate loan disbursement and recovery||9 groups proposals submitted to AgDB- Wa but no disbursement yet.
GH¢65,800.00 recovered from defaulting groups (2008 – 2010)
|Loan recovery rate increased.||More farmer groups received credit from the bank.||Cumbersome loan processing procedure and stringent conditions.
|17||Collect sentinel data for Food Security analysis.||Food security and nutrition indicative data collected in with PDA computer
Knowledge and skills of farmers enhanced
|Progressive report on food security and household nutrition made available by WFP
Behavioural change observed
|18||Conduct demonstration on open of cowpea PICS bags||35 open bags demonstration conducted .||Farmers knowledge enhanced on the use of PICS storage technology||Reduced post-harvest losses and phyto-toxicity of stored cowpea||Delay in supply of PICS bags|
- FBO Formation
- Value chain concept training
- Linking FBO’s to financial institutions
- Promoting dry season farming
BLOCK FARM PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES
- Facilitating the formation of commodity groups
- Provision of combine harvester and tractor services to farmers
- Provision of inputs to farmer groups on credit
- Provision of extension services to beneficiary farmers
- Monitoring and supervision of block farms
- Buffer stock company : Purchasing of farmer’s produce
- Armajaro cotton Ghana limited : Assisting farmers to produce cotton
- ADRA : Assisting farmers to produce maize
- ACI : Promotion of cashew production by providing farmers with improved seedlings