Hohoe Municipality, situated in the centre of the Volta Region, with Hohoe as its capital, was created in 1979. The republic of Togo borders the municipal to the east, while to the west is Kpando District. On to the north-west is Jasikan District and to the south is Ho Municipal. The Municipal houses part of the Akwapim-Togo ranges extending beyond the country’s eastern boundary all the way to Western Nigeria.
Within these ranges is the Mountain Afadzato, the highest elevation in Ghana (880.3m)
River Dayi (a perennial water source) which drains the whole municipality together with other smaller ones make it possible for small irrigation especially for dry season cultivation of vegetables.
The Municipality has vast suitable land for both upland and lowland rice cultivation and the bimodal rain pattern is an added potential for crop production. Out of the 117,200 ha of land area of the municipality, about 55,000ha (47%) are suitable for crop production and about 10,000 ha, (8.5%) as pasture land. Out of the available land for crop production, only about 22% are under effective cultivation. The first choice crop of importance to the indigenes is rice, maize and cassava.
The Hohoe Municipality has a very good road network within the municipal, which facilitates movement from the rural areas to the municipal capital. There are 390km of road network in all, made up mainly of feeder roads. The Municipal capital is however linked up to the regional capital, Ho and Accra, the National capital by first class roads.
The municipality is connected to the national electricity grid. There are 3 commercial Banks, namely Ghana Commercial Bank, Barclays Bank Gh. Ltd and Agricultural Development Bank, all located in the municipal capital. The regional office of Bank of Ghana is also located in the municipal capital.
PHYSICAL AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Location and Size
The Municipality is located within longitude 0o15’E and 0o45’E and Latitude 6o45‘N and
7o15’N at the heart of the Volta – Region. The Municipality covers an area of 1,172 square kilometers (117,200 ha), which is 5.6% of the regional size and represents 0.5% of the national land area. It shares common boarders with the Republic of Togo on the east, south by the Ho Municipal, on the west by the Kpando District and in the north-west with the Jasikan District.
Topography and Drainage
The Municipality houses part of the Akwapim-Togo ranges extending beyond the country’s eastern boundary all the way to Western Nigeria. These ranges are at the eastern part of the Voltaian Basin, aligning on the Southwest and Northeast axis. Within these ranges is the Afadjato, the highest elevation in Ghana (880.3m). A number of highlands include Avegbadze (858.2m) Asoglo (745.5M), Agumasato (834.9m) Akpadafe (762) and Agumale (757.6m).
The Akpafu ranges, an outgrowth of the Akwapim-Togo ranges lies north of the district and rises to a peak at Akpafu Odomi area. A notable peak in the Akpafu ranges named Mlabo is 773m above sea level. The Akpafu range is believed to have iron deposits. However, their commercial viability has not been explored to support the local iron founding industry which is now almost extinct.
River Dayi (a perennial water source) takes its source from the Akpafu ranges and drains the whole district covering the low-lying portion of the municipality between the Akwapin-Togo ranges and the bit bordering the Volta-Lake and extending to the Detu highland in the south of the municipality. River Dayi enters the Volta-lake in the Kpando district. Some other important rivers which drain into the Dayi river are Koloe, Agumatsa, Tsatsadu and Aflabo. These rivers make it possible for small scale irrigation especially for dry season cultivation of vegetables.
Some of the low-lying areas have swamps that are used for rice cultivation. They include Akpafu Odomi, Akpafu Mempeasem, Santrokofi and Godenu areas. There are however other low-lying areas for small scale rice cultivation scattered throughout the municipality.
Geology and Soils
The Soils generally tend to be sandy overlying iron pans. Bottom lands carry heavy silts and cracking clays. As a consequence, drainage is very poor, subjecting the area to extreme variations in soil moisture.
The soils – ochrosols and oxysols – of the forest zone have the capacity for greater accumulation of organic matter in the surface horizon. It also exhibits a greater depth and degree of weathering and acidity as compared to its savanna portions.
There are four (4) soil groups in the Municipality with the forest ochrosols and their interior savanna types – ground water laterite – ochrosols integrates being the major components.
The other components are forest zone types namely forest ochrosols – oxysol intergrades, interlacing the forest hiltosols strips along the eastern border with the Republic of Togo.
The advantage of the soil groups is that both savanna and forest crops do well in the municipality. Some of these crops are Cocoa, Coffee, Oil palm, Banana, Plantains Rice, Cassava, Yams, Maize, Groundnut, Mango, Pineapple and Papaya.
The annual rainfall total ranges between 1100mm and 1500mm, averaging 1300mm. The rainfall pattern is bimodal with two distinct rainy seasons. The major rains start from April through to July while the minor season covers the period from September through November. Occasionally the municipal bimodal pattern gives way to continuous rain from April through to November.
On the average, the major season receives about 43% of the total annual rainfall as compared to about 40% for the minor season.
Comparative figures however establish a greater reliability of the rain both in quantity and distribution during the minor season than the major season.
Generally, the northern and eastern portions of the municipal covering Akpafu, Likpe, Leklebi and all areas along the eastern highlands receive total rainfalls above the municipal average. These areas support the growth of tree crops including cocoa and oil palm. The south- western areas bordering the Kpando District are relatively drier with extensive savanna vegetation which is generally suitable for cultivation of vegetables and livestock production.
The municipality falls within the Forest-Savanna transitional ecological zone of Ghana, with the forest part at its southern and eastern sectors and tapering into the middle of the municipality.
The vegetation of the transitional zone is considered to have developed from the forest. The eastern highlands are clothed with high forest.
Age and Sex Distribution of the Population
The 2000 Population and Housing Census (2000 PHC) put the population of the municipality at 144,502 with an annual growth rate of 1.9%. The breakdown is as follows; Male 70,674 (48.9%) and Female 73,545(50.9%). The municipality has 20 paramouncies with 12 area councils and 1 urban council. The municipal’s growth rate of 1.9% is higher than the regional growth rate of 2.2% and also higher than the national growth rate of 2.7%. With this trend in the municipal’s population growth, it is likely to double in 15 years should the other demographic characteristics and growth indicators fail to change significantly.
The population density was 123 persons/km2 in 2000 as compared to the national density of 79 persons/km2 and the rural-urban ratio of 80:20 gives indication of the large number of people in the municipality.
Sex and Rural-Urban Distribution of the Population
: The main traditional and urban councils in the Municipality with their estimated
populations and percentages.
Source: Hohoe Municipal Assembly
The Climate and Soils support varieties of crops and livestock. Crop production includes food and cash crops. The livestock include small ruminants (sheep and goats) poultry, piggery and cattle on a small scale. Fish farming or acqua-culture is carried out mostly in the central portions of the municipality around Logba, Ve, Hohoe and Santrokofi. The farming systems include mixed cropping, crop rotation and mixed farming.
Local vegetables namely okro, tomato and garden eggs are cultivated extensively mostly in the Ve, Logba and Nyagbo areas of the Municipality.
Food crops are produced mainly by peasant farmers using simple hand tools. The average land holding per farmer is about 0.5 ha. However, few farmers are into medium scale farming using machinery. Apart from rice and cassava which to some extent are planted as sole crop, most farmers practice mixed crop farming.
The major food crops cultivated in the municipality are maize, cassava, rice, plantain, cocoyam and yams. Vegetables (okro, tomato and garden eggs) are grown all over the Municipality.
Major Crops Produced in the Municipality*
|Average Yield (Ton/Ha)||Total Production
*2009 SRID Estimates Major Crop Production Locations in the Municipality
|Crop||Major Locations Of Production|
|1. Maize||Fodome, Liati, Gbledi, Ve, Wli, Alavanyo|
|2. Cassava||Fodome, Ve, Alavanyo, Nyagbo, Tafi, Akpafu,|
|3. Rice||Akpafu, Santrokofi, Lolobi, Likpe, Godenu.|
|4. Yam||Ve, Alavanyo, Tafi, Nyagbo|
|5. Plantain||Alavanyo, Likpe, Akpafu, Logba, Lolobi|
|6. Vegetables||Ve, Nyagbo, Tafi|
|7. Fruits||Nyagbo, Logba, Lolobi , Likpe, Tafi, Ve, Liati|
The main industrial or cash crops grown in the Municipality are cocoa and coffee. These are mostly grown in the high rainfall areas of Akpafu, Santrokofi, Lolobi, Alavanyo, Logba, Nyagbo, Wli and Gbledi. There has been significant increase in the production and yield of cocoa of late. The increase is attributable to rehabilitation/replanting of old farms and pests and diseases control exercise.
Tree Crop Production
The relatively high annual rainfall coupled with deep soils of the forest areas gives the Municipality comparative advantage in the production of fruit tree crops.
The recommended tree crops to be invested in include mangoes, avocado pear, citrus, pineapple and coconut. The Nyagbo and Logba areas of the Municipality, which produce the best quality avocado pears, are very ideal for commercial production of these fruits.
Citrus production in the municipal is still at the infant stage.
Some commercial farms in the Municipality :
|No||Name of Farm||Location||Commodity||Size of Holding (ha)|
|1||Volta Fruits Estate||Ve Wudome||Mango/Pineapple||100/2|
|2||Kingdom Fruits||Tafi Abuife||Mango/Pineapple||320/16|
|3||Marfco Farms/Pinex Farms||Gbi Avega||Mango/Pineapple||22/14|
|4||Bomarts Farms||Tafi Abuife||Mango||160|
|5||Mawuli Farms||Liati Teikrom||Mango||16.8|
|7||Peter Dakpui||Liati Agbonyra||Mango/Pineapple||28|
|10||William Farms||Tafi Atome||Mango/pineapple||8/2|
The vast savanna enclave bounded by Have, Logba, and Tafi-Atome and river Dayi are ideal for pineapple and cashew production. The perennial Dayi river is an additional resource in the area for all year round production of pawpaw.
Rain-fed Vegetable Production
The sandy loamy soils of Ve, Nyagbo and Tafi areas, which receive moderate to heavy amounts of rainfall per annum, support extensive vegetable production in the district. Low levels of nematode incidence in these areas give comparative advantage for production of the common local vegetables namely tomato, garden egg, okro and pepper.
Annual dry seasons however limit all year round vegetable production. The flood plains of the Koloe river, stretching from Teikrom through Koloenu to Andokope are potential areas for vegetable and rice production under irrigation. Over 2500ha of land could be put under vegetables annually, if the areas are developed.
Intensive vegetable production using green house or plastic house production technique could be very fertile area for investment.
SCALE OF PRODUCTION:
The majority of farmers in the Municipality are small-holders with about 80% of them using simple tools such as hoes and cutlasses for cultivating their farms. Also about 70% of the farmers depend on family labour while about 30% undertake zero tillage practice (i.e. planting without soil tillage through the use of herbicides to kill the weeds) in land preparation or use weedicides for farm weed control. However, this phenomenon of chemical weed control in farms is steadily increasing year after year.
Cattle production is on relatively small scale and confined mostly to the southwestern tip of the municipality bordering the Volta Lake around Kpeve and part of Ve area.
Pig production is gradually increasing in the Municipality. Most of the production is concentrated in the Hohoe township. Some other producing areas are Akpafu Odomi and Ve Golokwati.
The agricultural produce which is processed includes oil palm, cassava and paddy rice.
Oil palm is processed into red palm oil and palm kernel oil. Cassava is processed into cassava dough and gari. Agro-Processing is mainly done by women on either individual or on group basis. The main oil palm processing areas are Likpe, Fodome, Gbledi, Logba, Koloenu, Kledzo, Akpafu, Lolobi, Wudome, and Wegbe.
Cassava processing is mainly carried out at Koloenu, Fodome, Logba and Gari Kope (Hohoe).
Rice mills are located in the main rice producing areas of Lolobi, Akpafu and Hohoe Township.
The government under the Farmer Based Organization Development Fund has supplied a complete rice processing machine with destoner to two farmer groups in the municipality. These mills are located at Akpafu Odomi and Fodome Helu.
Also two farmer groups were supplied with cassava processing machines and the other two with complete irrigation equipment under the FBO Development Fund.
Livestock farming is another prominent venture in the municipality. Cattle, small ruminants (sheep and goats) and poultry – both local and exotic – can be found throughout the municipality. Local pigs can be located within some specific communities in the municipality, largely kept on free-range.
Commercial Poultry Production:
There are a few farmers who keep between 200 – 1500 layers. They are mostly located in the municipal.
|SPECIES||POPULATION||MAJOR LOCATIONS OF PRODUCTION|
|Cattle||2,487||Ve-Golokwati,Ve-Avekpo,Woadze and Have|
|Sheep||10,287||All over the municipal|
|Goats||32,070||All over the municipal|
|Poultry (Local)||73,490||Local breeds all over the municipal|
|Poultry (Exotic breeds)||2,633||Wli Afegame, Hohoe,Ve – Koloenu,Have,Alavanyo, Logba|
|Pigs (Local breeds)||52||Hohoe, Woadze|
|Pigs (Exotic)||610||Mostly Akpafu-Mempeasem|
Source: Estimates based on Year 2010 Hohoe MoFA
Improved animal husbandry practices in the municipal are on the average. Most small ruminants and local poultry are kept on free-range. The average herd of small ruminants per household is twelve (12) and that of cattle is ten (10) per Kraal or a compound.
The Municipality is not drained by any large rivers. Fishing is therefore confined to the southwest end of the municipal along the Volta River at Kpeve and Woadze Tornu.
Acqua-culture or fish farming was introduced into the Municipality in the early part of the eighties. Currently 80 ponds have been constructed by 22 farmers totaling 105ha in size.
Various types of fresh-water fishes are harvested in the river and the ponds. Some of the species include:
a. Tilapia Nilotica
Agricultural products either in their raw forms or semi processed are generally marketed directly by the producers or through intermediaries (middlemen/women). Women normally carry the raw products to local markets by head loads. The mode of sales is generally by price bargaining as the products are sold not by weight but by size, quality and or appearance.
The grains are generally sold using unit measures eg. Olonka, margrine tins or bowls etc the tubers and plantains are sold by size and variety/quality.
Market women/men go round to purchase commodities on wholesale basis. A limited amount of pre-financing of production exists. By this arrangement, the intermediaries advance some amounts of money to the farmers during the course of production of the crops. The recipients of such advances are bound over to sell the produce to the intermediaries immediately after harvesting. This normally results in the traders offering low prices for the commodities. However, horticultural crops like mango and pineapple are processed in the municipality or exported in the raw form to Britain and Germany.
MAJOR MARKETING CENTRES
The main marketing centers in the municipal include Hohoe central market, Ve-Koloenu, Logba Alakpeti, and Lolobi Kumasi. Below is a table of some prominent markets.
MAJOR LOCAL MARKETS
|1||Hohoe Central||Rice, Yam, fish, maize, fruits and other foodstuffs||Mondays and Fridays||Major|
|2||Koloenu||Fish, yam, gari, cassava dough, vegetables.||Every Friday||Minor|
|3||Logba||Fish, fruits, plantain, banana, vegetables,||5 days intervals||Major|
|4||Have||Maize, fish,yams, other foodstuffs||Mondays and Thursdays||Minor|
|5||Lolobi||Maize, plantain, banana, cassava||Wednesdays||Major|
|6||Likpe Bala||Maize, plantain/banana, cassava||Fridays||Minor|
|7||Wli||Rice, cassava, plantain, banana||Wednesdays||Minor|
|8||Fodome Helu||Rice, cassava, plantain, banana||Thursdays||Minor|
|9||Fodome Amle||Rice, cassava, plantain, banana||Wednesdays||Minor|
|10||Akpafu Mempeasem||Rice, fruits, local foodstuffs||Wednesdays||Minor|
|11||Santrokofi||Rice, local foodstuffs||Saturdays||Minor|
PROJECTS ON-GOING IN THE HOHOE MUNICIPAL
Development Partner Assisted Projects
The following projects are being carried out in the Municipality;
• Koloe-Dayi Small Scale Irrigation Scheme
• Agri-Business Information Point
• NERICA (New rice for Africa) Project
• Root & Tuber Improvement and Marketing Project
• Millennium Challenge Account compact
• Export Marketing and Quality Awareness Project
• Livestock Development Project
Koloe- Dayi Small Scale Irrigation Scheme, Hove
The Government of Ghana with financial support from the African Development Bank (AfDB) has constructed an irrigation scheme at Hove on the Koloe river, a perennial water source in the Hohoe Municipality of the Volta Region. The total land area developed under the scheme is 70 acres (28 hectares). The area has the potential for development. The scheme has three (3) pumps that supply water to the field and is powered by electricity from the national grid. The project was started in 2002 and became operational since 2005. Activities
The farmers cultivate vegetables (Okra, garden eggs and kpakpo shitor) in the dry
season i.e. between November to May (using irrigation) and maize
and rice during June and October (rain fed).
Agri-Business Information Point Project
This is an Electronic Commerce Project being piloted in one district in each region.
Ministry of Food and Agriculture in partnership with and support from International
Institute for Communication and Development (IICD), MISTOWA/IFCD/USA is
sponsoring the project which aims at promoting trade through the use of the internet and mobile phones among the stakeholders in the agricultural sector ( traders, farmers, processors and export) .
This is an Africa Development Bank (AfDB) funded project. It was launch in 2005. Hohoe municipal is one of the 3 implementing Districts in Ghana.
Special characteristics of this rice are:
• Toughness of African native rice and high productivity of the Asian varieties.
• Matures within 30-50 days earlier than other rice varieties
• Raise the yield from 1.0 to 1.5 of other upland rice varieties
• Uses minimal application of fertilizer
Apart from the production aspect, the project is also involved in infrastructure development. Therefore the project has constructed a road network of 4.95km opening up about 5,000ha of farmlands. Officially, the project has ended last year, 2010 but it has been extended to the first half of 2011.
ROOT AND TUBER IMPROVEMENT AND MARKETING PROGRAMME (RTIMP)
The RTIMP national coordinating office is in Kumasi. The Hohoe Municipal is in the zone 3 which is coordinated from Koforidua in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The project seeks to multiply and distribute improved high yielding cassava planting materials to farmers. However, the emphasis is to link up all actors in the value chain in order to establish an effective marketing system that would be beneficial to all the players. The RTIMP began in the Hohoe Municipal this year, 2010. Enough improved cassava planting materials have been produced and distributed to beneficiary individuals and groups.
MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE ACCOUNT COMPACT
This project is a grant from the people of America to Ghana. It aims at increasing the general livelihood of the people of Ghana. The Ghana MCA Programme goal is : “Promotion of growth and poverty reduction through private sector led agri business development”.The choice of Agri business as the local area for MCA assistance provide the opportunity to direct resources at a key sector of the economy with potential to significantly lift growth rates and impact poverty.
The opening of MCA programme strategy is the opening up Ghana for competition, through the combination of major road infrastructure, and modernizing Agriculture through increasing productivity and production of food staples and non- traditional export crops. In this, it is perfectly aligned with the expressed objectives and activities of the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy’ medium term priority area. Currently MCA has constructed a 9.8km road linking Tafi-Mador to Jordan opening up 10,000ha of farmlands.
Export Marketing and Quality Awareness Project (EMQAP)
It seeks to promote the production, processing and marketing (export and local) of horticultural crops i.e. mangoes, pineapple, and high value vegetables like pepper, garden eggs etc.
Livestock Development Project
The aim of the project was to reduce poverty, improve food security and reduce imports of livestock products in an environmentally sustainable manner. The project also sought to increase the incomes of smallholder livestock and dairy farmers, processors and traders in the project area. The project has made strides in the provision of 1200 sheep in the form of credit in kind to 119 beneficiary livestock farmers to meet the objective of the project.
Additionally the project dealt with other cross-cutting issues such as HIV/AIDS and Malaria/Guinea Worm eradication.
PURELY GHANA FUNDED PROJECTS
The Municipal Agricultural Development Unit (MADU)-Hohoe is one of the implementing municipalities of the Block Farming under Youth in Agriculture Programme.
It was introduced into the municipality in 2010. A total of Four hundred and thirty-two (432) farmers comprising 248 males and 184 females were supported to crop 100ha each of maize and rice. More farmers will be supported under the programme this year, 2011.
Cocoa Pest & Disease Control Programme
It is a Ghana government sponsored project aimed at increasing cocoa production in the municipality. Cocoa farms are spayed to control pest and disease free for farmers.
Under this project the fertilizers are the sold to farmers. The fertilizers are applied to the farms. It is directed at increasing cocoa production.
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN AGRICULTURE
Non-Governmental Organizations such as;
1. Concern for Humanity and Nature Center-Environmental activity
2. Pro-Link Organization-HIV/AIDs and Peer Education
3. Christian Rural Aid Network (CRAN) – Private Extension, Micro Financing and Capacity Building of farmers.
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES DELIVERY
The Municipal Agricultural Development Unit-Hohoe has a well established extension system responsible for overseeing Agricultural technology diffusion. Other NGOs in the municipality also support in the extension delivery in the area of group formation, capacity building, micro financing and Health issues.
Out of the 117,200 ha of land area of the municipality, about 55,000ha (47%) are suitable for crop production and about 10,000 ha, (8.5%) as pasture land.
Crop production lands are evenly distributed in the municipal. It is made up of forest areas of Akpafu, Likpe, Lolobi, Gbledi, Leklebi, Nyagbo and Logba. The savannah lands cover Ve, Tafi, Have and Kpeve areas. The vast savanna plain stretching from Tafi Atome through Have to Kpeve Tornu are suitable for livestock production especially for cattle ranching.
FOOD CROPS PRODUCTION
The first choice crop of importance to the indigenes is rice, maize and cassava. However, the potential for the cultivation of cereals such as maize and rice is vast owing to the vast stretches of land under very suitable climatic conditions. Currently also, there is enormous potential for large scale production of the vegetables such as pepper, garden eggs, okra, tomato, and cabbage.
The municipality is endowed with numerous valley bottoms conservatively estimated over 10,000 hectares. This gives the municipality comparative advantage over all the other districts in the Volta Region in rice production. Indeed the municipality accounts for about 35 percent of rice produced in the region annually.
Extensive valley bottom areas include Godenu, Fodome, Ve, Santrokofi and Akpafu.
The vast savanna areas at Kpeve along the Volta Lake are ideal for cattle ranching. The area is endowed with rich nutritious grasses and legumes.
Beekeeping and grass-cutter production are also potential targets if farmers are given the necessary support by MOFA, NGO’s and other investors. The required supports are basically the provision of technical know-how and suitable production and processing equipment.
The Hohoe Municipal and other districts of the Volta – Region have numerous poultry farms of varying sizes. There is however, no hatchery in the region. All the poultry farmers have to procure their day old chicks from the Greater Accra region or elsewhere. A hatchery located at Hohoe will not only serve the region and but also surrounding ones.
Fish culture in the municipality is on lower side even though there are potentials. Investment in cultured fisheries, especially, the dugout production systems hold the potentials for very profitable business.
Human resources are the second largest resource of the municipality. The high population density of the municipality i.e. about 123 per km2 which is far above the national average of 69 per km2 and the rural urban ratio of 80:20 gives indications of the large number of people in the municipality. There are also a large number of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour force in the municipal. The artisans account for a large proportion of skilled manpower while school leavers and dropouts account for the semi-skilled labour.
Hohoe Municipal has enormous potential for agro-processing industries, both in the animal and crops sectors.
CASSAVA PROCESSING FACTORY
The Municipal produces about 75,000 metric tons of cassava annually. It has the potential to increase the yield to over 100,000 metric tons within one year. Therefore, investment in the production and establishment of a Cassava Processing Factory or facility to process raw cassava into the following products should be a very profitable business:
i. Starch for industrial use
iii. Tapioca and biscuits
iv. Animal feed – for livestock and poultry.