The strategic context upon which the National Security Strategy (NSS) of Ghana is formulated includes the domestic as well as the regional and global security landscapes. This NSS is therefore informed by a critical analysis of a number of domestic, regional and global factors over the long, medium and short terms to identify the underlying sources of Ghana’s security challenges and to make projections for the future. The geographical location of Ghana, and the ethnic and demographic spread of its population,
its standing in the comity of nations with respect to its standing and obligations under international law as a member of international organizations, the provisions of the 1992 Constitution in shaping individual rights and freedoms as well as the directive principles of state policy are all factors that shape the strategic context of Ghana’s National Security.
Domestically, the threats and challenges to Ghana’s national security are either crime-related, politically motivated, perceived injustice, or from our very ethnic, political, religious and social diversity. Violent and economic crime, governance deficit, impunity and misuse of office, a creeping culture over time of exclusiveness, nepotism and neglect of persons not part of one’s party political lineage, vices of bribery, corruption, illegal trafficking, smuggling, money laundering and other economic crimes are some of the primary challenges that place our national security into context.
On the regional and global security landscapes, the contemporary regional and global threat profile and the available peace and security frameworks of the ECOWAS, AU and UN and how they impact on the security situation in Ghana, as well as the opportunities available to Ghana within the framework of ECOWAS, AU and the UN in a rule-based globalized multilateral world, frame the strategic context of Ghana’s national security.
The strategic context for defining a framework for the National Security of Ghana, in addition to the domestic, regional and global landscapes, also considers the evolving nature of the threat portfolio overtime which points to the need for adaptive response mechanisms. The rationale for the NSS, the national values and interests of Ghana, the related strategic objectives and how they are to be attained therefore form an integral part of this strategic context.